smud mNhn 8

 a;Nd;m;n \ inek;br &;retr s;muidk phrI
smud esn

   a;mr; p;Y sb &;rtIYr;E men kir ey &;retr sbRdi=, p;Nt hl kn*;kum;rIk; y; 8 i@gI a=;'exr Ak$u er abiSht. ikNtu AE /;r,;i$ si#k nY. &;retr di=,tm p;Nt hl eg$ inek;br Iepr di=,tm a'x y;r pUebR n;m izl ipgm*;ilYn peYN$ Pygmalion Point) Ab' btRm;n n;m hl EiNdr; peYN$. Ai$ 6 i@gI a=;'exr k;z;k;iz.
   &;rtbWR eqek EeNd;enixY; ktdUr? h;j;r m;El p-;c h;j;r m;El? Aekb;er &ul EiNdr; peYN$ eqek EeNd;enixY;r sum;]; mh;Iepr dUrtB m;] 90 m;El ejen a;XcyR hebn ey eg$ inek;berr sbeceY -cu p;h; 2105 fu$ m;N$ quEl;err \pr eqek %ub xix;lI dUrbI=, yeN]r s;h;ey* sum;];r rpixcm p;eNtr Aicneh@ ed%; y;Y.
   be^;ps;gerr a;Nd;m;n \ inek;br Ippu Ab' a;rbs;gerr l;=; Ippu r;jwnitk e&oeg;ilk s;mirk b;i,ij*k Ab' b;Yu Shl \ jl wsn*;pt*ibd*;Y suekoxelr ey;g* peY;egr pey;gI s;muidk p;,Ij \ %inj XbeyRr apirsIm &;;r s;muidk y;t;Y;t \ ibk;x sMpikRt ibWeY tBpU,R. a;mr; &;rtIYr; Asb eb;Zb;r ec; kir n; belE AE Ipilr smeN/ a;mr; ibexW tB a;er;p kir n;. yid\ a;m;edr a;b;r j;n; a;ez ey AE Ipilr jn* p;Y sMpU,R&;eb be^;ps;ger \ a;rbs;gerr is'h&;eg a;mr; a;m;edr a;i/pt* Sh;pn kret eperiz.
    &;rtbeWRr m;nic] %-ui$eY ed%el l=* kr; y;Y ey be^;p;s;gerr pUbRdi=, idek Aks;ir mue;r mt keYki$ =ud ibNdur smi set*Ndn;q der &;W;Y " Ak s;ir isN/ur i$p. AE hl a;Nd;m;n Ippuer e&oeg;ilk aiSttB. ek;lk;t; eqek 780 m;El. ec;E eqek 740 m;El a;Ytn 2580 bgRm;El. el;ks'%*; m;] keYk l= t;\ gt p;x bzerr n;n;&;eb ibk;exr pr. e&oeg;ilekr; beln p;ewgith;isk yueg imY;nm;r &UtpUbR bmR; edexr ekp enegs eqek sum;];r Aicneh@ pyRNt smg a;Nd;m;n inek;br Ippu ibStOt izl. per n;n;rkm p;kOitk ibpyReY Ar keYki$ a'x smued tileY egez b;ik a'x Iep pir,t heY A%n\ m;q; tuel d-;ieY a;ez. A%n a;Nd;m;n IpsmiR r sIm;eNt l*;fl Ip di=, sIm;eNt r;$l*; Ip \ as'%* %;i ineY eg$ a;Nd;m;n ibStOitet p;Y dux m;El. Ar cix m;El di=e, il$l a;Nd;m;n Ab' t;r a;ix m;El di=e, inek;br Ippu.
    esk;el a;Ntj;itRk b;i,ej*r peq ikNtu be^;ps;gr p;i edb;r smY a;Nd;m;enr p;x ideYE sb j;h;ejr a;n;eg;n; izl ibexW ker 10 i@gI c*;enl ideY pOiqbIr n;n; idk eqek. a;ifk; cIn j;p;n EijP$ gIs er;m m;lY j;&; sum;]; Et*;id b edexr j;h;j AE peq y;t;Y;t krt pOiqbIr pUbR \ piXcmp;eNtr se^ b;i,ej*r jn* Ab' ntun edx a;ib:k;r \ ai/k;err eex*. AE peq y;];k;el k%n\ s;Eek;en a;;Nt heY k%n\ pq h;ireY k%n\ b; p;nIY jelr sN/;en AE j;h;jil AE Ippue Aes pt. A%;nk;r a;idm as&* j;itr h;et t;edr l;n;r sIm; q;kt n; Ab' ikzu el;k j'lIedr h;et m;r;\ pt. esEsb j;h;ejr n;ibekr; A j;Yg;$; seN/ Amn sb &Iitpd gLp pc;r ker eb;t ey b;ik j;h;j s;/*mt a;Nd;m;nek AieYE clt. Ar a;eg AE Ipilr aiSttB bidn pyRNt pOiqbIr el;ekedr k;ez a+;t izl. per a;Nd;m;n \ t;r b;isNd;edr seN/ el;ek eysb k;ihnI pc;r ker eb;t t;r ebixr &;gE izl alIk b; k;Lpink.
     a;Nd;m;n seN/ pqm ith;isk e% p;\Y; y;Y itIY xt;Iet ki@Y;s $elimr
el%; Aki$ m,k;ihnIet y;et pyR$k be^;ps;gerr ktkil Ippuer kq; ile%ezn n;m ideYezn a;gm;i$ t%nk;r &;W;Y
Good Spirit Island). Ar per nbm xt;Iet a;rbedxIY pirb;jkedr @;eYir eqek a;rb a;Nd;m;enr %br p;\Y; y;Y. dujn a;rb pirb;jk y%n &;rt \ cIenr me/* smudpeq y;t;Y;t kerizeln t%n p;nIY jelr sN/;en t-;r; AE Ippue Aes pen Ab' bn* pj;tIYedr h;et t-;edr ikzu m;;m;iZ m;r; y;Y. t-;r;
ile%ezn A%;nk;r ai/b;sIr; ed%et ait &Yr r g; kOb,R `n ek-;k;en; eq;k; eq;k; m;q;r cul ku_ist \ &Y;bh mu%;kOit. m;nuWil ngk;Y \ bn* m;'s;xI jNtur mt ixk;err k-;c; m;'s iz-e %;Y.                          
   a;r\ c;rx bzr per ]eY;dx xt;Iet pirb;jk m;ekR; ep;el;r el%; eqek AE Ipil seN/ a;r\ ikzu j;n; egl be^;ps;ger a;Nd;m;n
(Angaman) n;em Ak ibr;$ Ippu a;ez. Ar ai/b;sIr; at*Nt bn* \ as&* ed%et j;en;Y;err mt &;b Ur. Ar; ibj;tIy m;nuW epel t;edr ht*; ker k-;c;E &=, ker.
   1853 s;el pirb;jk m;$;r isj;r ef{@irk m;l;K; eqek eg;Y; y;b;r peq inekber Aes pen. itin ile%ezn inek;br eqek ep m;Y;nm;er pyRNt aenk ez;$ ez;$ Ip a;ez t;edr bel l*; af a*;;imYns
(Land of Andameons) Ab' t;et ikzu m;nuW b;s ker y;r; j;et p;wgith;isk. Ak pj;itr el;k an* pj;itr el;kek ht*; ker &=, ker. ek;n\ j;h;j yid du&R;g*em es%;en igeY pe et; n;ibekr; ekE p[;, ineY ifer a;set p;er n;. 
   %IpUbR tOtIY xt;Iet sm;$ aex;ekr smY Akb;r Akdl htsbR &;rtIY bi,k p;$ilpue] ifer Aes t;edr m, ibbre, ile%izeln smuedpeq is'hl eqek a;sb;r smY Ak Iep a;m;edr enobhr q;mel es%;nk;r kOk;Y ku_ist \ l^ ai/b;sIr; a;m;edr \pr akq* at*;c;r ker \ yq;sbR eke enY. aitke p;, ineY a;mr; ifer Aesiz. anum;n kr; hY AE bi,kr; hYt a;Nd;m;enE Aes peizeln.
   AE&;eb b xt;I pyRNt a;Nd;m;n inek;berr Ipil s&*jgetr k;ez Ak rhs*mY &Yr edx bel g,* ht. ibXb;s kr; ht ey A%;nk;r a;idm ai/b;sIr; nr%;dk Ab' AE appc;err fel AE Ipil seN/ b;ik pOiqbIr m;nuWr; d;, a;tgSt q;kt. fel n;n; el;ekr b,Rn; eqek a;Nd;m;n \ t;r ai/b;sIedr seN/ n;n;rkm ibXb;s* aibXb;s* \ aut k;ihnI pc;r hl b xt;I /er. 

   AtdUer AE ibiCz Ipilet m;nueWr pqm pd;pR, keb \ ik&;eb heyizl &;bet ab;k l;eg. aenek beln bidn a;eg Ak ptuRgIj j;h;j itnx k;f{I Itd;sd;sI ineY em;j;ik eqek imY;nm;er ptugIRj es$lemN$ ep y;iCzl. du&R;g*em be^;ps;ger pc Ze j;h;ji$ idg heY a;Nd;m;n Aes p;e eleg y;\y;et esE k;fI S]IpuW A%;enE eqek y;Y.
    a;r\ ex;n; y;Y ey m;leYxIY \ cIn; jldsu*r; a;Nd;m;en t;edr `-;i$ wtir kerizl. t;r; ikzu &IW,dxRn k;fIedr /er Aen A%;en eze ideYizl y;et t;edr &eY b;Eerr ek;n\ j;h;j A%;en Aes i&et n; p;er.
     teb ib+ \ pis ith;iskedr /;r,; ey AE Ipilr ai/b;sIr; Shlpeq a;ifk; eqek piXcm AxIY edxil p;r heY &;ret b h;j;r bzr a;eg Aesizl Ab' imY;nm;r sum;]; ey;jk&Uim b;
isthmus Aes bsb;s kerizl Ab' per p;kOitk dueyR;eg AE ey;jk &Uimi$ y%n Ippue pir,t hY t%n b;ik pOiqbI eqek t;r; ibiCz heY pe. ek ek men kern AE k;fIr; Shlpeq a;ifk; eqek suNdrbn pyRNt a;es. es%;en keYk xt;I q;k;r pr g;e#r -i e%;d; p;let;l; enok; k*;nu (Canoe)et ker at*Nt du's;hesr pircY ideY AE Ippue Aes ep-oezizeln ek;n\ a+;t k;re, inbR;ist jIbn y;penr jn*.
     btRm;n inbN/k;err pY;t agj; xImtI pit&; b bzr a;Nd;m;en izeln p;x W;$ serr dxek Ab' pcur anusN/;n \ gebW,;r pr dui$ bE ele%n sbuj Ip a;Nd;m;n Ab' a;Nd;m;nshcrI inek;br. inek;br Ippuer Eith;s seN/ itIY gNhi$et itin ile%ezn a;Nd;m;n b a;eg eqekE inek;br pUbR Aixy;r edxilr s;eq pirict izl. b xt;I /er sum;]; j;&; EeNd;cIn bmR; m;lY is^;pur Amn ik cIn edx eqek\ b*bs;YIr; inek;ber y;t;Y;t krt. a;r\ el;k a;st Eer;epr e@nm;kR ptuRg;l ai$Y; Et*;id edxil eqek pirt* beS]r ibinmeY iney eyt j;h;j&itR n;rekl.
     inek;br Ippue inxi$ Ip y;r me/* b;er;i$ Iep m;nueWr bsit a;ez. p/;n Ipi$r n;m k;r inek;br. AE Ipi$ Ippuer rp;eNt di=,p;eNt a;ez eg$ inek;br. smg inek;br Ippuer ibSt;r 163 m;El.
    itIY xt;Iet ki@E;s $elim t-;r m,bO;eNt aE Ippuer e% kerezn n;m ile%ezn b*;is
(Barussae). m;ekR; ep;el; Ar n;m ile% egezn enkue&r;m. m;lYb;sIedr k;ez inek;br pirict izl s*;mibl (Sambilong b; nYi$ Ip n;em. 1050 %I;er Great Tanjore InscriptionA inek;berr n;m el%; a;ez n;^;&rm b; ngedr edx. n;^;&rm n;K;brm inek;brm inek;brAr n;emr ibbtRn. The Journal of Indian History-et S. Krishnamurti Iyengar ile%ezn di=, &;retr itIY r;ejNd ec;l; Ak;dx xt;Iet spirb;er inek;br Ippue Aesizeln. t-;r er;jn;mc;Y itin k;r inek;brek k;rIp eg$ inek;bek n;g;Ip Ab' eg;$; inek;brek n;^;&rm n;em e% kerezn. cIn; pirb;jk IT'Sung  672 s;el inek;br Aesizeln Ab' AE Ippuek cIn; &;W;Y el;eje; (Lojenko) b; l^edr edx n;em ai&iht kerezn. 
    ibi$x a;mel jlpeq b;i,ij*k y;t;Y;t inr;pd kr; jelr g&Irt; m;p; jelr nIecr p;,Ij \ %inj XbeyRr pirm;, anum;n kr; Et*;id k;ejr jn*
Hydrography aqR;_ jl&;g seN/ gebW,; s;muidk m;nic] an \ g&Irt; in,RY p&Oit s';Nt ib+;nccR;Y E$ EiY; ek;Mp;nI pqm eqekE t_pr izl. Az;; izl enoyue AE Ipilr b*bh;err ey;g*t; in,RY kr;. A k;j heYizl sdx xt;Iet ek;Mp;nI ;r; per t; c;ileY y;n ibi$x srk;r Ab' prbtIRk;el &;rt srk;r.
    1770 s;el k*;eP$n jn iric rY*;l eni& inyu hn
Hydrographer, Marine Survey  Department of India. Ein glI ndI eqek ker b;'edexr smudt$;l m;Y;nm;err t$;l Et*;idr si#k s;muidk m;nic] ( Nautical Charts) wtir kern. teb a;Nd;m;n Ippuer s;muidk m;nic] wtir hY elfe$n*;N$ per k*;eP$n a;icRb ebY;err tB;b/;en.
    1777 s;el k*;eP$n jn iric be^;ps;gerr Ipil ek;Mp;nIr trf eqek em;$;mui$ jrIp ker g&nRr ejn;erl \Y;ern ehi$'s ek ele%n
In whatever light these islands are considered, a thorough knowledge of them will appear to be a matter of great utility.' 1789 s;el td;nINtn g&nRr ejn;erl l@R knR\Y;ilesr tB;b/;en Chief Hydrographer k*;eP$n a;icRb ebY;r Ab' Surveyor General ke,Rl ek;lbӳkek t-;r shk;rI iheseb smSt Ipil \ t;edr a;exp;exr %-;i \ smud;l jrIepr k;ej p;#;en; hY itni$ k;re, " 1 keYid pinebexr jn* Aki$ men;mt Sh;n inbR;cn 2 b;i,ij*k y;]Ib;hI \ s;mirk j;h;j \ wsen*r jn* inr;pd ep;t;xY \ eno`-;i$r pyu Sh;enr jn* sN/;n \ bNdr pirdxRn Ab' 3 a;Nd;m;enr a;idb;sIedr ekoxel bx ker t;edr se^ bN/utB Sh;pn.          
     A-r; dujn p;Y sb ki$ b Ip bNdr %-;i Et*;id pirdxRn ker ek;Mp;nIr k;ez epx kr; t-;edr irep;e$R il%eln a;Nd;m;en At suNdr b ;&;ibk ep;t;xY b;
Natural Harbour a;ez y; pOiqbIr a;r ek;q;\ a;ez ik n; seNdh. p;kOitk dOx* ait men;rm. jlh;\Y; &;el;. Ipilr me/* ez;$ b b p;nIY jelr Z,R; a;ez. ek;n\ ek;n\ ep;t;xY At pxSt ey rY*;l eni&r ae/Rk j;h;j es%;en an;Y;es r;%; y;Y. keYid pinebx b; Penal Settlement Ar jn* di=, a;Nd;m;enr c*;q;m Ip \ t_s'lg b Ipi$ eyi$r n;m per ed\Y; hY ep;$R ebY;r %ubE pyu.
    1789 s;el es$lemN$ Sh;pn kr;r d;iYtB ideY k*;eP$n ebY;rek numbir a;Nd;m;en
p;#;n hY. j^l pir:k;r ker bsit Sh;pn ker b;i`r wtir ker r;St; eke$ bNderr eji$
(Jetty) wtir ker a;idb;sIedr a;m, er;/ ker b-;x \ k;# eke$ eZ;pi wtir ker p;nIY jelr jn* p;k; jl;xY wtir ker /Ier /Ier Ipdui$et kel;in ge et;l; hl jn hl pqm keYid pinebexr. tir trk;ir \ ikzu xes*r c;W\ hl fl p;\Y; egl a;x;tIt.
    keYk bzr b;ed n;n;k;re, AE kel;in di=, sIm;Nt eqek r sIm;eNt ineY y;\Y; hY. ikNtu j'lIedr a;m, at*Nt a;Sh*kr a;bh;\Y; rsedr a&;b Et*;id n;n; ibpedr  smu%In heY ibi$x srk;r AE pinebxi$ pirt*;g kern.
    a;Nd;m;n Ippuer b;ik Eith;s a;m;edr em;$;mui$ j;n; a;ez. t;E A%;en t;r punr;bOi in:peY;jn. teb Ar n;emr mUl A%n\ ibtikRt. $elimr a;gm;e$ m;ekR; ep;el;r a;^;m;n ef@irekr a;eimY;n &;rtIY bi,kedr a;N/;r m;i,k* m;leYxIY dsu*edr &;W;Y EY;'$u'm;' b; a;;m;n r;m;Ye,r hnum;enr se^ Ipb;sIedr ech;r; emel bel hum;n h;m;n a;em;n Et*;id n;emr \pr n;n;rkm jLpn;kLpn; ek;nidn exW hb;r nY. teb A%;nk;r el;ekr;  bel ey gN/m;dn pbRt beY ineY y;b;r smY hnum;n AE Iep ibx;m kerizeln Ab' Ar anbd* esoNdyR ede% muG/ heY a;Nd;m;nek t-;r r;j/;nI krebn bel a;idb;sIedr kq; ideY igeYizeln pbnnNdn.
   

    /u hnum;n ekn p;#k\ yid a;Nd;men k%n\ eb;et y;n et; es%;nk;r p;kOitk esoNdyR ede% muG/ heY y;ebn. smud p;h; ndI Z,R; jlpp;t %;i pt*k; bNdr g;zp;l; pb;lIp n;n;rkm \ n;n;rer pb;l hd b; Coral Lagoon bNderr jel Czt; n;n;rer n;n;j;itr \ n;n; a;k;err m;z ;Sh*kr a;bh;\Y; pdUW,mu pirebx sb imileY a;r Ak jgt AE a;Nd;m;n inek;br Ippu. 
    a;Nd;m;n inek;br Ippuer s;mirk tB seN/ ibi$x srk;r icrk;lE \Y;ikbh;l izeln. itIY mh;yuer p;re j;p;n srk;r\ Ar tB pli kern
As early as the 7th  February 1942, the Imperial General Headquarters in Japan had issued orders for their capture.' (History of the Second World War- Woodburn Kirby). EY;^n er^un xherr ptenr ab*biht pUebRE &;retr &;EsrY l@R \eYe&elr a;edex ibi$x \ %R; esn;nIr ey ki$ b*;e$ilYn a;Nd;m;en izl t;edr sireY en\Y; hY. Arpr ibi$x &;rtIY j;h;j es;ifemir a;Nd;m;enr k;ez m;En ibeSf;re, @ueb y;Y c;ri$ m;lb;hI j;h;j ine%-;j heY y;Y Ab' ibi$x &;rtIY j;h;j r;md;s j;p;nI a;me, =itgSt hY. c*;q;m eji$ eqek b;ik ibi$x &;rtIY enoesn;r j;h;j j;p;nI @ueb;j;h;ejr a;m, eqek b-;cb;r jn* 13E m;cR 1942 s;l ec;E \ ek;lk;t; ai&mue% r\n; heY y;Y.
    23 ex m;cR 1942 e&;r c;re$Y j;p;nI eni&r Aki$ b;ihnI c*;q;m Ip \ ep;$R ebY;r a;m, ker Ab' ep;$RebY;err ebt;r Ab' e$ilg;f dftr ieY edY. du`$; b;ed j;p;nI wsn*r; xher pebx kret ker. Ekb;l is'eYr
'The Andaman Story' Ab' ih $YAr 'The Springing Tiger' pel A$; eb;Z; y;Y ey j;p;nIr; yid\ ent;jI su&;WceNdr Indian National Army Battalion  Ab' Provisional Indian Government  a;Nd;m;n Sh;penr pitxӲit ideYizl t;edr a;sl ex* izl sMpU,R&;eb an*rkm 'The Japanese had no intention of handing over any effective power.' 
          ent;jI hYt ibXb;s kerizeln ey j;p;nIr; t;edr pitxӲit r;%eb Ab' Aki$ Co-prosperity sphere Ar sOi heb. ikNtu ent;jIr epr a;Nd;m;en Aki$ Indian National Army Contingent Ar Sh;pn; j;p;nI srk;r Eitme/*E n;kc ker ideYizeln. ent;jI a;Nd;m;en Ak;E Aesizeln \-ek a&*qRn; j;n;n a*;@imr;l Eixk;\Y; iyin izeln td;nINtn  Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Army. Hugh Toye ile%ezn 'The Admiral, in agreeing to the appointment of an Indian Chief Commissioner,
 told Netaji that for urgent Strategic reasons there would be no complete handover during the War but that, if the Commissioner was prepared to co-operate, some departments of Civil Administration could be transferred............ on the second and last day of Netaji's visit, there was a public meeting in his honour......... Netaji talked about the formation of the provincial Indian Government and dwelt on his aim to seek the help of the Japanese Government in the fight for India's freedom. Therefore, he said that it was incumbent upon the Indians to co-operate the Japanese.'

          
ent;jIr a;Nd;m;en duidn q;k;k;lIn ek;n &;rtIYek \-r k;ez a;set ed\Y; hYin j;p;nIr; ey AE Ipilet &;rtIYedr \pr akq* at*;c;r krizl t; t-;ek j;net ed\Y; hYin Amnik &;rtIY Liaision Officer edr\ \-r se^ Aki$\ kq; blet ed\Y; hYin. t;E a;Nd;m;enr &;rIYedr j;p;nIedr h;et ik abSh; heYizl t; ent;jI ek;nidnE j;net p;ernin. a;r Amni$ ey heb t; &;rtIYr; j;netn belE ent;jI a;Nd;m;n pirdxRen a;s;Y t-;r; ek;n _s;h b; a;nNd pk;x kern in. &;rtIYedr t-;r k;z eqek dUer r;%;r jn* ent;jI yid /r; y;Y abSh;i$ %;ink$; a-;c kerizeln esibWeY ek;n kq; itin j;p;nIedr s;eq ek;n smeYE ;pn kern in. INA Ar elfe$n*;N$ ke,Rl el;gn;qn Chief CommissionerAr pd gh, krb;r jn* 1944 s;elr 22ex efbӲY;ir ep;$R ebY;er a;esn ikNtu t-;ek /u biseYE r;%; heYizl pd gh, kret ed\Y; hYin. itIY mh;yu abs;enr pr a;g$ 1945 s;el j;p;nIr; a;tsmpR, ker \ ikzuidn per a;Nd;m;n eqek cel y;Y.
    a;Nd;m;en j;p;nI ;r; &;rtIYedr \pr akq* am;nuiWk \ nOx's at*;c;err ibSt;irt ibbr, Am
. Ekb;l is'Ar suili%t bE 'The Andaman Story' et a;ez.
    1947 s;elr efbӲY;ir m;es a;E is As aifs;r En;mul mijdek aE Ippuer pqm &;rtIY icf kimxn;r ped inyu kr; hY. AE smY eqekE AE Ipilr &Us;mirk &Ur;jwnitk Ab' &Ub;i,ij*k tB &;l&;ebE pli krl ibi$x mhl Ab' t;r fel edx&;g ineY ccR;k;lIn AE ali$ek a;el;cn;r b;Eer r;%b;r ec; kr; hY. AE ibWeY t_k;lIn ibi$x km*;;rEnicf if m;xR;l s*;r k@ aiknelk &;rt mh;s;ger  ibi$x kmn\eYlqAr n;n; b*;p;er ai/k;r rsd \ %inj etl srbr;h
pUbR piXcm pOiqbIr s;muidk ael j;h;j y;t;Y;t inYN], a;k;xpeq Er;k xIl; m;Y;nm;r m;leYixY; y;t;Y;etr sub*bSh; kn\eYlq Ar ;eqR AE Ipilr b*bh;r Et*;id ibWY gebW,; ker Aki$ irepR;$ ele%n Ab' t;et beln
'Should India be unfriendly or liable to be influenced by a power, such as  Russia, China or Japan, hostile to the British commonwealth, our strategic position in the Indian Ocean would become untenable and our communications  with New Zealand and Australia most insecure.'
       
Akm;s b;ed lniSht India Office AE Ipilr edxib&;egr smY ik abSh; heb t; j;nb;r jn* ey;g;ey;g krel itnjn ibi$x s;mirk Chiefs of Staffs mt;mt b* ker beln ey Ipilr ai/b;sIr; j;itgt&;eb &;rtIYedr eqek i& sutr;' t-;r; AE ali$ ibi$x srk;err d%elE q;k; ict bel men kern. Az;; ln eqek l@R epiqk lerNs &;retr &;EsrY l@R \eYe&lek Ak pe] ele%n 'Attention has been focussed here on the Andaman and Nicobar Island. The Chiefs of Staff have been giving consideration....... and have represented that from the strategic point of view t is most desirable that we should retain British Sovereignty over the islands and that, if that is not possible, we should  at least conclude  a special agreement with India allowing usefull freedom to take what defensive measures we consider necessary.'
         
AEs;eq A\ bl; hY ey AE Ippue keYki$ b ibm;nbNdr b;ineY es%;en Royal Air Force keYki$ Squadron r;%; heb Ab' AE j;Yg;il ibm;npeq y;b;r staging post b; rsd etl Et*;id srbr;ehr ekNdShl ihs;eb b*bh;r kr; heb. ikNtu A b*bSh; ey &;rtIYr; shej emen enebn n; t; ibi$x srk;r buZet eperizeln. idI eqek l@R \eYe&l 1947Ar 19ex m;cR Aki$ pe] l@R epiqk lerNsel ele%n '..... you will appreciate, of course, that the islands are a part of India, and would not easily be given up by the Indian Government expect in return for some very special consideration. The only chance of securing the use of  these Islands as a defensive outpost would presumably be to get the matter covered in a general defence agreement. Aipelr 10 t;ire% &;retr r; sicb ikNtu Aki$ irep;e$R il%eln  ' The strategic value of the Islands was assessed by India's Defence Department and the three Service Headquarters were of the considered  opinion that the Islands were not required for the development  of a ibi$x Naval Base or for positioning a military garrision but a small meteorological station  would be located on the Islands for the benefit of the  rY*;l Air Force.'
        
AE Ipilek ineY esE smY ibe$n &;rtIY k'egs musilm lIg m;Y;nm;r ae$ilY; Et*;idr me/* Ak tumul ibtekRr sOi hY. Ar s;eq l;=; Ippuek\ ekNd ker AkE rkm&;eb kmn\eYlq \ an*;n* edx ;r; b*bh;err ai/k;r c;\Y; hY.
    ibi$x srk;r AE smY a;r\ beln ey Ae@n
(Aden A%n a;d;n bNdri$ eymn Settlement of Aden a;En p;x ker kmn\eYleqr b*bh;err jn* e%;l; r;%; heYez AE Ipilek\ etmin r;%; eyet p;er. aenk a;el;cn;r pr b*;p;ri$ &;retr &;EsrY Ar \prE eze ed\Y; hl.
    ikNtu l@R m;N$b*;e$n iyin smeY &;EsrY ped a;sIn izeln ek;en;idekE agsr het p;rizeln n;. k;r, Ar a;eg
India and Burma Committee t-;edr %s; ibel AE Ipilr ek;en;E e% kern in. t%n sdR;r p*;e$l m;N$b*;e$nek Ak pe] ele%n 'The Congress Party centainly regarded the Islands as part of British India and that these were a Chief Commissioner's province under the Government of India act 1935.'
        
ibi$x srk;rek el%; t-;r irep;e$R l@R m;N$b*;e$n e%;l;%uil ele%n It is becoming increasingly clear to me that any attempt  by His Majesty's Government to claim the Andaman Islands as colonies will cause an absolute flare-up throughout the length and breadth of India........... My own position will be permanently undermined if I were to act on behalf of His Majesty's Government in this matter......... I believe the only reasonable solution would be to suggest some form of joint control or a leasing of the naval and air bases treaty........ the only thing I am quite certain about is that any high-handed action about these Islands at this moment will destroy all the good feelings which now exist between the two countries.'
     
12E jun Ak irep;e$R l@R m;N$b*;e$n a;lR af ile$;\eYlek (Secretary of State Earl of Listowel) ele%n ey eyehtu &;rtbWR du&;eg &;g heb esehtu k'egs \ musilm lIegr ent;edr s;eq AibWeY a;el;cn; ker mIm;'s; kr;E b;nIY. 9E jun id $;Ems af EiY;Y Aki$ s'b;ed bl; hY ey ibi$x srk;r AE Ipilek t-;edrE inYN]e, r;%b;r is;Nt ineYezn cuipcuip. 11E jun id ihNduSt;n $;Ems sMp;dkIY klem ele%n ey Amn yid hY puer; &;ret AE ineY pc ibxOl; ed%; edeb. atAb r;jwnitk ent; s'b;d\ s;miYkpe]r r;jwnitk sMp;dk s;m;ijk ent; r;jwnitk ibexW+ Et*;idedr s;eq ibStOt a;el;cn; keE AibWeY is;Nt en\Y; y;eb.
    ici#r keYk `N$;r me/*E r a;es
Secretary of State eqek y;et itin beln 'The relevant clauses of the Bill in their existing form would have to be omitted but if no other provision is inserted, the Islands will automatically become a part of free India by virtue of clause 2(1) of the Bill.' 
        
itin a;r\ beln 'We note that the Muslim League claim that they are entitled to a share in the Andamans and Laccadives as an All-India asset.' t-;r met ibSt;irt a;el;cn;r peY;jn A%n\ fuireY y;Yin.
    15E jun Aki$
Staff Meeting A l@R m;N$b*;e$n AibWeY a;el;cn; ps^ ai&mt b* kern ey a;Nd;m;n &;rtek ed\Y; ict Ab' k;rinek;br \ n;nk;\ir ibi$x srk;err a/Ien r;%; ict. t-;r ai&met a;r\ pk;x ibi$x srk;r ikNtu em;$;mui$ AE is;NtE ineYezn ey Ipilet Akjn ibi$x kimxn;r ineY;g ker esilek x;sn kr; ict.
    abexeW 5E jul;E Aki$ e$ilg;em a;lR af ile$;\eYl m;N$b*;e$nek j;n;n
'The Geographical position of these Islands makes it impossible to assign them to Pakistan, nor did any form of joint control by both india and Pakistan seem to us practicable. We felt that to exclude the Islands altogether from either India would not be acceptable.'
       
AE e$ilg;mi$ y%n mhmd a;il ij;ek ed%;en; hY t%n itin :;Y efe$ pen. ibi$x p/;nmN]I \ iber;/I delr ent;ek Aki$ e$ilg;m p;i#eY itin j;n;eln ey dui$ ntun edxek &;retr e&oeg;ilk XbyR n*;Ysmt&;eb &;g kr;r ek;n\ b*bSh;E kr; hYin. itin a;r\ beln 'Clause 2 of the Indian Independence Bill allots the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the Dominion of India. These Islands have  never formed a subject to discussion of agreement between parties at any time. Their sudden  inclusion in India raises a very gave issue. They are not a part of India historically or geographically. They were British possessions administered by the Government of India and are not in the same category as other Chief Commissioners' Provinces being reserved to the Governor General under the Constitution Act 1935. The majority of the population consists of tribes who are not connected to the peoples of Inia by ethnical, religious  or cultural ties. Pakistan's  claim to these Islands is very strong since the only channel of communication between Eastern and Western Pakistan is by sea and these Islands occupy important strategic positions on the sea route and provide refueling bases. The Dominion of India have no claim. They should  form a part of  Pakistan. 
        
AE e$ilg;imi$ epeY ibe$en rIitmet; a;neNd;_sb hl Ab' a;r\ Aki$ pSt;b wtir kreln itnjn Chiefs of Staff y;B;r; AE Ipilek t%nk;r Commonwealth Committee in the Far East Ar tB;b/;en Aki$ ibi$x kel;nI ihs;eb r;%b;r pSt;b ed\Y; hl. a;r\ bl; hl ey A pSt;bi$ &;rt \ p;ikSt;enr gh,ey;g* n; hel AE Ipilr yug m;ilk;n;r kq; &;bet Ab' dui$ edxek ibi$x eno \ b;Yu esn; `-;i$r b*bSh; emen inet heb. AE ibWeY Chiefs of Staff Committeer mNtb* 'The victory should however,  be informed that if the Indians leaders could not agree to it, we should be prepared to omit any reference to these Islands from the Bill and to leave our interests to be dealt with by negotiations with the new Dominion of India alone.'
         
%;ink$; m;N$b*;e$enr d;i=,* b; &;rtepm %;ink$; mh;t; g;N/Ir b*itB %;ink$; enhr s;eq g&Ir bN/utB %;ink$; edxb*;pI ibe=;e&r &Y ikNtu p/;nt" &;rtIY r;jwnitk ent;edr c;epE AE Ipil abexeW &;retE a;es. ij;r bRr miSt:k p;ikSt;enr pe= AE Ipilek d;bI kr;r jn* a;r ek;n\ justification b; n*;y*t; ey;g;n idet p;er in. 
     Ipilr b*bh;irk ey;g*t; eymnE eh;k Aedr jel Shel pbRet bNder asIm esoNdeyRr z;zi. nYn&er ede%\ tOi hY n; Amn apUbR Amn mihmmY Amn men;mukr Ar p;kOitk p. A%;nk;r pkOitr lIl; ede% men men p,;m kret hY sb lIl;r iyin a;kr esE prm;t;ek      
           
                                ey; edeb; aego ey; apsu
                                     ey; ibXbm &ubnm
                                 ey; \W/IWu ey; bnSpitWu
                                         twS edb;Y nem; nm"
     AE Ipilek pirm; ker Akjn ibedxI el%k ile%izeln
'No amount of description of these Islands can do justice to them. Their beauty maddens the soul like wine. They invite Wordsworth, a Spenser or  a Tagore to celebrate them in immortal verse; a Macauly or a Thackeray to praise their striking beauties in glorious prose; a Michaelangelo or a Raaphael to depict this fairyland  in glowing colours.'
          
ps'h;er a;b;r xImtI pit&; r xr, iniCz y-;r; ihm;lY me, y;n t-;r; ng;i/r;ejr icrtuW;rbOt epr s;=;_ l;& ker tIqRy;];r pu,* sY kern y-;r; r &;ret y;n t-;r; ith;isk j;Yg;il dxRn ker Eith;esr +;n a;hr, kern y-;r; di=, &;ret y;n t-;r; d;i=,;et*r miNdrmY xhril ede% ixLpsOir crmtm _keWRr dO;Nt p;n ikNtu y-;r; a;Nd;m;en a;esn t-;r; p;n Ak ntun pmY gIRY edx a;ib:k;err apiremY a;nNd.
     ibWuber%; eqek 6 i@gI a=;'x di=e, Ab' idI eqek kn*;kum;rI yt dUer kn*;kum;rI eqek tt$;E dUer \ di=e, a;ez &;rt mh;s;gerr ekNdibNdu iheseb Aki$ ibr;$ Ippu n;m
Chagos Archipelago b; c;gs Ippu y;r p/;n bNderr n;m Diego Garcia b; i@eYeg; g;isRY;. AE Ippui$ izl ibi$x srk;r ai/k;er pirt* Al;k; iheseb. edxib&;egr smY a;m;edr edexr ent;edr yid AE Ippuer r;jwnitk b;i,ij*k s;mirk Et*;id tB seN/ sUc*;g pirm;,\ +;n r;jwnitk ibc=,t; \ t_prt; q;kt t AE Ipil\ &;retr d%el a;set p;rt Ab' smSt &;rt mh;s;ger kn*;kum;rI eqek di=, em pyRNt a;m;edr edexr r;jwnitk \ s;mirk p&;b bj;Y q;kt. a;emirk; es$; buZt belE per AE Ippui$ek ibi$x srk;r eqek ph;r iheseb ineY Ak ibr;$ enoesn; \ b;Yuesn; `-;i$ Sh;pn kerez. A$; ik ker hl ik'b; Maldives b; m;lIp\ ekn a;m;edr d%el Al n; es a;r Ak k;ihnI.     

tq*sUcI "

el%ekr    Under Two Ensigns 
sbujIp a;Nd;m;n pit&;
                         
a;Nd;m;n shcrI inek;br pit&;

The Transfer of Power  1942-47 - Nicholas  Mansergh Viceroy's Official  Conference File No. 19 (1947)
The Andaman Story  - N. Iqbal singh
Report on the Roayl Indian Navy  - Naval headquarters (I), 1946                               

The Royal indian Navy - D.J.E. Collins                   
Reminiscences - Vice Admiral K.L.
Kulkarni, Reer Admiral K.R. Nair

A Matter of Honour - Philip Mason
TheTimes of India - Mumbai, June9, 1947
The Hindustan Times - New Delhi, June 11, 1947
el%ekr gt 30 bzerr irs;cR epp;r men;g;f \ an*;n* rcn;.
History of the Second World War- Woodburn Kirby
The Springing Tiger - Hugh Toye  

  


" sUicp] "
smud[ mNqn 1 " &;rtIY enob;ihnIr rY*;l ebgl $;Eg;r
smud[ mNqn 2 " smud[pq " &;rtIY iteh*r rt;g;r
smud[ mNqn 3 " &;rtIY s;muidk iteh* Ak njr
smud[ mNqn 4 " ezciexr enoibed;h
smud[ mNqn 5 " j;h;j inmR;e, &;retr itih*k _kWR
smud[ mNqn 6 " edxegorb i]ibm
smud[ mNqn 7 " eno esn;r p;Yr; @;k b*bSh;
smud[ mNqn 8 " a;Nd;m;n \ inek;br &;retr s;muidk phrI
smud[ mNqn 9 " a;Nd;m;n inek;br \ l;=; Ippu

a;kR;E& sUicp]

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