smud mNhn7

   p;%I ek n; &;el;b;es ? smSt pOiqbIet a;k;ex b;t;es jel j^el m;e# `;e$ pukuer dIi`et ndIet s;ger kt rkm ez;$ m;Z;ir b p;%I a;mr; edi% \ t;edr g;eYr r a;k;r n;c m/ur k;kil ede% \ en a;mr; mu hE p;%Iedr \pr kt k;b* s;iht* s^ItsOi heYez h;j;r bzr /er edebr rcn;Y\ apUbR el%; p;E p;%Iedr \pr. eymn
 p;i%r e&;j


       j;er h;\Y;Y fuileY @;n; Ak$uku mu% e!ek
                aitiqr; eqek eqek
          l;leck;el; s;d; rer pirCz ebex
                ed%; ideCz Aes.
          %;ink perE Aek Aek ej;e$ p;Yr;el;
          buk fuileY ehelduel %-ue$ %-ue$ /uel;
                %;Y z;en; /;n.
          \edr se^ x;il% delr pi b*b/;n
               Ak$um;] enE.
               prSperE Ak sm;enE
          b*Stp;eY eb;y p;tr;ex.
          m;eZ m;eZ ik ak;r, ];es
               ]St p;%; emel
          Ak muhUetR y;Y e /;n efel.
               a;b;r ifer a;es
               aehtu a;Xb;es.

                           a;k;xpdIp 1938


    a;m;r ez$ebl;r bN/u d;xRink \ pqinedRxk aqR;_ xIpUW, kum;r d \Wu/ ibexW+ Ab' pi=ib+;nI. 1999 s;el pk;ixt t-;r s;; j;g;en; in idI \ idI geNh itin p=Ijgt seN/ aenk kq;E ile%ezn. t-;r met AE pOiqbIet m;nuW n; q;kel pOiqbI i#kE clet; yid\ AE pOiqbIr ech;r; Aekb;er an*rkm ht. ikNtu p;%I n; q;kel pOiqbIr jIbjget ar;jkt;r sOi ht ht ep;k;m;k kI$pt^ \ t;edr b'xbOi. kI$pte^r b'xbOir git At dӳt \ s'%*;Y At ebxI Ab' mbRm;n ey t;ek er;/ n; kret p;rel Atiden m;nuW /B's heY s;r; ibeXb ekbl ep;k;m;kE q;ket;. AE ep;k;m;ker s'%*; p;%IE b;et edYin. ep;k;m;ker b'xbOir git eymn tIb p;%IE Aedr b'x l`u kr;r git\ esE rkmE tIb. p;%I t;r b;Cc;ek ep;k;m;k %;\Y;Y. ed%; y;Y Ak Aki$ p;%I s;r;iden p;Y itnx sr b;r ep;k; mue% ineY b;Cc;ek %;EeY egez.
    m;nuW xkuin p;%Iek `O,; ker eknn; xkuin mr; j;en;Y;err gl;pc; m;'s e%eY eb-ec q;ek. wb+;inkedr dOiet ed%et egel eb;Z; y;Y xkuin p;%I m;nueWr bN/u. ibXbb*pI mr; j;en;Y;r yid j^el el;k;leY ndIr /;er pe q;ek \ t;edr xrIr yid pcet q;ek et; er;egr ibW; jIb;nu At b a;k;r \ s'%*;Y heb ey t;ek a;Ye a;n; \ /B's kr; m;nueWr s;/*;tIt. a keW ed%; egez ey pOiqbIr smSt a*;iN$b;Yi$k y; m;nuW At bzer ibi& \Wue/r k;r%;n;Y wtrI kerez t; AE jgtb*;pI mh;m;rI dUr kret m;] Ak s;ehE exW heY eyt.
    g;zp;l; s'r=e, bIj ibtre, er,u z;en;Y pkOitr ex;&; b;;en;Y p;%Ir abd;n %ubE tBpU,R. xId blezn pOiqbIr ex;&;esoNdyR bOi ker ful. fuelr p;t; \ t;r r esor& z;; m;nueWr dOiek a;kWR, ker n;n;&;eb. fuelr p;t;r r k%en; Ak k%en; emx;en;. AkE p;t;Y aenk smY At r ey t;r b,Rn; kr; el%k kib wb+;inekr pe= kkr. &;retr ex p;%Iepimk @r s;ilm a;il t-;r bEeY ile%ezn fuelr r \ an* ex;&; ibk;ex emom;iz pj;pit \ kI$pte^r d;n p&Ut hel\ p;%Ir d;n\ as;m;n*. p;%Iedr e#-;e$r \ ije&r gn Amn ey t;r; fuelr e&tr eqek m/u e$en a;net p;er. fuelr g;z plk; \ nrm. t;r @;el p;%I bset p;er n;. esjn* as;/;r, k;Yd;Y @;n; n;;r s;h;ey* p;%I ikzu=e,r jn* fuelr s;men Aes n; e inXcl heY t;r l; cu fuelr e&ter pebx kireY m/u e$en enY. AE smY p;%Ir @;n;r p;lek fuelr er,u eleg y;Y. per k%n\ b; Akx duex; Amnik h;j;r m;El dUer e igeY p;%I an* fuelr m/u p;n ker. AE smY p;%Ir p;lekr er,u ntun fuelr er,uet emex. AE imxe, fuelr bIej ntun r a;es. bIj eqek ntun ful a;egr duE fuelr emx;en; r fl;Y. emom;iz \ pj;pit At dUr p;;Y et p;er n; eknn; t;edr gitibi/ sIimt. dUr p;;Y e p;%IE s;r; ibeXb fuelr r \ At ex;&;r sOi kerez.

      

piry;YI p;%I (Migratory Birds)

      m;nueWr sOi Aer;epnek 50 m;El e eyet\ yeq EN/n %rc kret hY Ab' rader, weather report, navigation Ar yN] navigator  b*bh;r kret hY. Ak mh;edx eqek a;r Ak mh;edex eyet et; l= ek;i$ $;k;r yN]p;it ix=,p,;lI EN/n Et*;id l;eg. ikNtu m,xIl p;%I ik&;eb pOiqbIr Akp;Nt eqek a;r Ak p;eNt pit bzr e igeY ifer a;es es rhes*r a;j\ sm;/;n hYin aenk wb+;ink anusN/;enr per\.
    
ern b; $*;nR n;em Aki$ xiclj;tIY s;muidk p;%I a;ez y; l;Y m;] 15 Ei ikNtu piry;YI p;%Iedr me/* AE j;tIY
p;%I sbeceY l; p;i edY. 1966 s;el ae$ilY;et Aki$ $*;nR p;%I Aki$ pi=ib+;nIr j;el /r; pe. AE p;%Ii$r p;eY Aki$ t;m;r iciht eb pr;en; izl y; eqek eb;Z; egl p;%Ii$ r em eqek e Aesez. r em eqek ae$ilY;r durtB 18056 ikel;im$;r b; 11222 m;El. per j;n; egez a;kRi$k $*;nR p;%I pit bzr r emr a*;l;; gI,l*; Et*;id al eqek ae$ilY; heY di=, emet y;Y \ per a;b;r s;r; pOiqbIet aitm ker r emet ifer a;es a;pn nIe ey i@m epe igeyizl esE i@mef;$; b;Cc;edr k;ez. pit bzr AE p;%I p;Y cix h;j;r ikel;im$;r b; p-icx h;j;r m;El \e. z;ix bzerr a;Yuet AE p;%I \e ge s;e zY l= m;El. AE p;%I m;i$ eqek keYk m;El \per
sub-zero #;;Y idenr pr idn r;etr pr r;t mh;smuedr \pr ideY ek;q;\ n; eqem Z ZZ; em` bOi bjp;t a;el; a;-/;r epireY ik &;eb afurNt xi ideY i#kmet; n;ibkibd*; b*bh;r ker gNtb*Shel ep-oez y;Y b;r b;r es rhes*r a;j\ wb+;ink sm;/;n hYin.
     a;r Aki$ piry;YI p;%I hl
Ruby-throated Humming Bird. ibXb;s kn AE p;%Ii$ At ez;$ ey \jn m;] itn g;m. AE p;%I pit xret ek;q;\ n; eqem emiek; ps;gr eqek e duh;j;r m;El p;r heY igeY xIt exeW a;b;r inejr p;; i@emr k;ez ifer a;es. Aki$ itn g;emr p;%Ir xrIer ik ker du h;j;r ikel;im$;r \b;r xi a;es t; eb;/hY \pr\Y;l;E j;enn.
     ikNtu p;%I a;ez y;edr
homing birds  aqR;_ nIe ifer a;s;r =mt;sMp p;%I bl; hY. Amin p;%Iedr me/* pe n;n;rkm p;Yr; Manx Shear-Water Et*;id b j;itr p;%I. AE p;%I \e dUr eqek t;edr b;s;r idek. 1845 s;el Akb;r i@k af \eYil'$n Aki$ p;Yr;ek %-;c;Y &er j;h;ejr sbeceY nIecr hold- A ere% E'l eqek a;ifk; y;]; kern. keYk m;s per di=, a;ifk;r Ak g&Ir j^el ep-oez itin %-;c; %uel p;Yr;i$ek ieY edn. esE p;Yr; keYk s;h n; eqem a;ifk;r j^l s;h;r; m&Uim &um/*s;gr \ Eer;p p;r heY 11250 ikel;im$;r b; s;t h;j;r m;El aitm ker t;r b;s;r k;ez y%n ep-oez;Y t%n t;ek ek;en; p=I ixk;ir emer efel. mOt p;Yr;i$ek p;eY eb-e/ ebiet i@ks;ehebr ici# p;\Y; y;Y.
    xIpUW, d t-;r bEeY ile%ezn m;' ixY;r \Y;$;r brfjelr p;%I. p;%I t;r b;s;Y i@m p;e suEe@enr 
StockholmAr p;ex Ak jl;&Uimet. t%nE t;ek k;Yd; ker p;%Iepimkr; j;el /er \ Ak bN/ b;e ere% a;emirk;r Boston xher ineY a;es. Boston xhr eqek p;%Ir Stockholm Ar b;s; p;Y p-;c h;j;r ikel;im$;r b; itn h;j;r m;El. Arpr p;i%r p;eY ir' pireY t;et peY;jnIY tB eb-e/ \;en; hY.
   s;r;ibeXbr p;%Iepimkedr a;xIbR;d ineY AE m*;' ixY;r \Y;$;r p;%I a;k;ex l. s;men t;r ait ibx;l a*;$l*;iN$k mh;s;gr. \per a% a;k;x nIec `n nIl jl. p;%Ir l=* aenk aenk dUer Ak edx ey%;en brf gl; jelr p;x jl;&Uimr getR t;r p;; ez;$ i@m. p;%Ir k;ez AtdUr y;b;r jn* ek;en; idkin,ReYr yN] b; kMp;s enE.
    eb;$n xhr eqek p;%I epimkr; kuirY*;r s;i&Rs $keh;emr p;%Iepimkedr ici# p;#;l p;i% eez AE t;ire% AE smeY.
    ez;| p;%I. \e. e cel. \; bN/ krel iniXct mOtu*. 
    $keh;emr jl;&Uimr p;ex p;%Iepimkr; k*;emr; ineY aep=;rt keb p;%I a;seb.
    p;%I tuim eqem; n;. tuim \e; e cl. tuim at =ud ait s;m;n*. ikNtu premXbr et;m;r =ud @;n;Y ideYezn asIm xi idk in,ReYr jn* t-;r a+;t +;n ideYezn et;m;r dOiet et;m;r epr,;Y itin ideYezn i@m %-uej b;r krb;r =mt;.
    ibeXbr b p;%I epimkr; $keh;emr esE ez;$ Iepr jl;&Uimr p;ex k*;emr; het aep=;rt. kq;mt b$n xhr eqek p;%I el A%;en ici# a;set eter; idn l;geb. t;rpr p;%I a;seb.
     s;r;idn s;r;r;t p;%Ir b;s;r idek njr ere% p;%Iepimkr; k;Nt. aenekr ec;% jieY Aesez. t; z;; ici# t%n\ a;esin. ici# a;s;r pr a;sl p;h;r; heb.
     esidn e&;rebl;Y Akjn p;%Iepimk dUr eqek t;r dUrbI, ideY ede% b;s;r e&tr ik eyn nez. t=ui, b;s;r mue% k;Yd;Y l;g;en; j;l efel ed\Y; hl. p;%Iepimkr; b;s;r k;ez igeY ede% ez;| esE p;%Ii$ek. t;r p;eY ir' pr;en;. eb;$n xher ir' xherr n;m t;ir% smY \ ek;@ nr el%;. ici# a;s;r a;egE p;%I t;r nIe ifer Aesez.
     m*; ixY;r \Y;$;r p;%Ii$r AE as;/;r, dUr p;;y \; \ t;r b;s;Y ifer a;s; esidn ibeXbr sb p;%I epimkedr ekbl Stit nY gibRt\ kerizl.
     i$n;
(Tuna)
m;z ebxIr &;g jNm;Y di=, a;emirk;r keYk h;j;r fu$ -cu Aki$ hed. Ak$u be; heY t;r; ndIpeq smued eneb Aes s;r; pOiqbI `uer eb;Y. keYk bzr b;ed y%n t;r; buZet p;er mOtu* a;s t%n t;r; i#k esE ndIr mue% igeY h;ijr hY \ jles;etr eL$;idek l;ifeY l;ifeY esE hed ifer igeY mer. ik&;eb AE m;z dx b;er; h;j;r m;El dUr eqek idk \ pq in,RY ker t;edr jnSh;en ifer a;es a;j\ eb;Z; y;Y in.


enoesn;Y p;Yr;@;k "
     AErkm a;er; b p;,Ir bdUr eqek nIe ifer a;s;r =mt; a;ez. t;r me/* homing pigeon b; nIg;mI p;Yr;r kq; m;nuW b h;j;r bzr /er j;en \ n;n; k;ej  t;ek b*bh;r\ ker Aesez. &;rtIY enob;ihnIet\ itIY mh;yu pyRNt j;h;j eqek bNdr @;k p;#;et p;Yr; b*bh;r kr; ht.
     nib'x xt;Iet ibi$x rY*;l eni&r j;h;jil
Homing Pegion Ar s;h;ey* English Channel b; a;er; dUr eqek Naval Base A @;k p;#;et;. &;rtIY enoesn;Y 1938 s;el Aki$ p;Yr;@;k ib&;egr sOi kr;r pr eb;m;n k;Yk;` xf (Boman Kakaighroo Shroff) n;em Akjn pis p=Iib+;nIek Royal Indian Navy Volunteer Reserve A elfe$*n*;N$ ped Officer in charge, Naval Carrier Pegions iheseb mu;EeY &itR kr; hY. 1938 s;elr 24 ex m;cR jNm enY &;rtIY enoesn;Y piry;YI p;%n; @;k di=, mu;EeYr k;el; e`;; n;mk j;Yg;Y l;Yn ege$r k;ez. 
    enoesn;Y &itR hb;r a;egE xfAr p;Yr; \;en; Ab' t;edr b;s;Y ifer a;s; ex%;en;r x% izl. t-;r k;ez p;Y cixi$ p;Yr; izl y; ideY
Naval Carrier Pegion x;%;i$ wtrI hl. enoesn;Y &itR h\Y;r pr xf inYimt&;eb em;$reb;e$ AE p;Yr;ilek smued mbRm;n dUrtB Et*;id ile% ieY idetn. p;Yr;il an* ek;en; b p;%I b; ixk;rIr h;et bil n; hel t;edr nIe i#k ifet a;set;. keYkm;s b;ed anup p;Yr;@;k ib&;g e%;l; hY a;er; keYki$ j;yg;Yek;lk;t; ec;E ek;icn \ kr;cIet. &;bet &;el; l;eg AE @;ki$ a;j\ bj;Y q;kel a;mr; ibjlIdUetr j;Yg;Y p;Yr; dUetr s;h;ey* p*re&j mux;rf s;ehbek aenk ici# p;#;et p;rt;m e-mail, snail mail, STD b; ISD b*bh;r n; ker. 
    esEsmeY aqR;_ 1939 s;el mu;EeY a*;ep;el; $Ie$ enoesn; aifs;redr emes egel ed%et epetn enoesn;r pt;k; e;lenr m;Selr p;ex Aki$ ibr;$ p;Yr; %-;c; y;et b;s krt keYkx p;Yr; Ab' AE izl &;rtIY enoesn;r pqm AY;ref;sR esn;pit izeln elfe$n*;N$ ib
.ek.xf keYkm;esr me/*E t-;ek Aki$ ntun n;em ai&iht kr; hY Pegion Shroff.
 
        bzerE 5E eseP$r &;rtIY enoesn;r esE smeYr dӳtg;mI yuj;h;j HMIS Pathan s;muidk p;h;r;r k;ej mu;E bNdr eqek r\n; hY a;rb s;ger x] dmen. AE idn enoesn;r Eith;es pqmb;r Pegion Shroff Ar entOetB Aki$ k;e#r b;e enoesn; AY;ref;esRr keYki$ p;Yr; en\Y; hY j;h;ji$et.  j;h;ej x]r j;h;j b; epn/B's krb;r jen* izl k;m;n s;bemirn /B's krb;r jen* izl $repe@; \ e@pq c;jR Ab' mu;EeYr s;eq s'b;d s'ey;jenr jen* izl ڤBl Ak Z-;k p;Yr;. j;h;j eqek r;@;er ek;en; %br p;#;el radio silence e&e y;Y \ x]p= j;h;ejr abSh;n t;edr direction finderAr s;h;ey* buZet p;er. t;E smued yq;sb radio silence bj;Y r;%; %ubE jrI Ab' k;ej p;Yr; @;k izl at*Nt k;yR*krI.
    a/un; axIitpr absrp; i@
. a;r. emht; esE smY Akjn 18 bzerr k*;e@$ (Cadet) izeln Ab' p;#;n j;h;ej izeln Pigeon Shroff- Ar shey;gI. 1983 sel a;m;r anuer;e/ SOitc;r, ker in a;m;ek j;n;n p;#;n j;h;j mu;E bNdr eqek 100 m;El dUer y;b;r pr Akidn sk;el Shroff  Aki$ ez;$ k;gej ikzu report ile% esi$ek k*;psuel &er Aki$ p;Yr;r p;eY eb-e/ syet h;\Y;Y ieY ideln. p;Yr;i$ j;h;ejr \pr keYk cKr ideY p;er idek e egl. du `N$; b;ed mu;EeYr Naval Signal Centre eqek %br p;\Y; egl p;Yr; t;r k*;psul ineY es%;en ep-oez egez. Ak `N$; b;ed a;r\ Aki$ p;Yr; \;en; hl Ab' esi$\ `N$; dueYk per mu;E ep-oez egl inibRe`. AE ideY hl enoesn;r Pigeon Mail service. p-;c idn b;ed p;Yr; @;ekr pqm b*bh;rk;rI j;h;j mu;E bNder ifer a;es.
    mu;E bNderr phr;Y enoesn;r j;h;jilek 100 m;Eelr me/* ibcr, kret ht Ab' AE dUrtB eqek p;Yr; an;Y;es mu;E bNdr pyRNt eh;m
(home)  kret p;ret;. xf A\ pm;, kerizeln ey AE dUrtB h;j;r m;El pyRNt b;;n eyt yid p;Yr;r; an*;n* piry;YI p;%Ir met; r;e]\ et p;rt. ikNtu p;Yr;r; r;e] \e n;.
     xf p;Yr; @;ekr p;%Iilek Aki$ Zuiet &er j;h;ej ineY eyetn Ab' piti$
report  b; b;tR; dui$ kip ker Akse^ dui$ p;Yr; z;etn k;r, k%n\ k%n\ AE p;%I b;j an* ixk;rjIbI p;%Iedr k;ez /r; pt.
     em @;k b*bSh;Y p;%Ir s'%*; b;;en; hl Ab' a;r\ keYk j;Yg;Y p;Yr;@;k esb; hl. 1941 s;el xf AE ibWeY Aki$ bE il%eln
India's other Air Forces. esE smeY p;Yr; @;ek p;%Ir s'%*; ebe 2000 A ep-oez;Y. p;%Iilek gNtb*ShelE pix=, ed\Y; ht k;r, t;r; j;Yg;etE home kret p;rt.
     1945 s;el xfek elfe$n*;N$ km;;r ped It kr; hY. ikzuidn b;ed in enoesn; eqek absr gh, ker p;%Iedr nIe efr;r =mt;r \pr anusN/;n \ gebW,; kern Ab' b bzr AE k;ej il q;ekn. 1983 s;el 75 bzr bY elfe$n*;N$ km;;r ib
. ek.
xefr s;eq mu;EeYr Ak s;=;tk;er a;im A ibWeY aenk ikzu j;net p;ir.
     1941 s;el 8E Aipl mu;EeYr wduink
The Times of IndiaA et Aki$ el%; eber;Y xIWRk " Postal Delivery System by Pigeons- Naval Scheme in Aid of the Navy War Fund. AE el%;Y a;ez 'Two hundred and fifty carrier pigeons of the Royal Indian Navy were flown from Kalyan mu;E eqek 50 m;El dUer abiSht to Bombay with copies of a message from the Governor of Bombay, Lord Brabourne, to the Flag officer Commanding, Royal Indian Navy. The amount realised from the sale of the messages (Rs. 4,000) was donated to the Royal Indian Navy War Purpose Fund, Commemorative envelopes bearing specially designed postage stamps were offered for sale to the public for Rs. 2 each.''
          p;%Ir  Homing technique  b; b;s;Y efr;r ekoxelr rhs* a;j\ sm;/;n hY in. p;%Iedr mgej ek;en; Computarised memory eymn cruise missile- A q;ek aqb; t;edr an* ek;en; =mt; (magnetic, stellar, gravitational, inetrial or lunar) a;ez ikn; a;j\ j;net p;ernin p=Iib+;nIr;. ikNtu xefr met p;Yr; j;tIY ikzu p;%I Shel;pir j;Yg;r ich b; wbix* (landmark) %ub &;el; men r;%et p;er Ab' t;r s;h;ey* an;Y;es pqinedRx p;Y. t;E t;r; idenE \e r;e] et p;er n;. AEjn* t;edr nI eqek \b;r dUrtB /Ier /Ier b;;en; hY. in a;m;Y belizeln 'If pegion are flying from Pune to Bombay, they would not make a bee-line for Bombay, because they can't see a place which is 120 miles away. But  if  important  landmarks such as hillranges, tall trees, lakes, towers, buildings etc. are already registered in their memory, they would fly the distance by flying from landmark to landmark. Besides, if the landmarks are registered in their memory well, they would make good speed too.'
           1983 s;elr 8E eseP$r ek;lk;t;r The Telegraph  wdink pi]k;Y Aki$ %ber bl; hY 'The carrier pigeon is  still holding its own in Orissa in this age of satellite communication. For 37 years these birds have provided trouble-free communication services in a state fragmented by steams, hills and primeval forests.'  iW*;r 13i$ ejl;Y p;Yr; @;ek Ak h;j;err\ ebxI p;%I b*bh;r kr; hy y; 37 bzr pUebR xefr k;z eqek _s;h epeY ek;r;pu$ ejl;Y heYizl. per AE esb; ;r; anup;i,t heY jr;et\ p;Yr;@;k kr; heYez. k;r, AE pedex\ smud m&Uim kCz ps;gr Rann of KutchAr ibx;l jl;&Uim Et*;id q;k;r d, Shl&;k b*bSh; a;j\ %ub ki#n. Az;;\ a;ez bWR;k;lIn p;bn \ gIe:r %r;. m/*pedexr cl ael puilx ib&;g b bzr p;Yr; @;ekr b*bh;r kern Ab' p;; ideY \%;nk;r @;k;tr;\ p;YE AE @;ekr xr, enY.
       ps'h;er a;m;r el%;
Under Two Ensigns bEi$ eqek AE ibWeY a;el;ict Aki$ Oit tuel /r; eyet p;er " 'Today's communications ensconced as they are in their signal centres maintaining wireless audio and video contact with all corners of the globe with the help of high  power transmitters satellite, lasers  and other modern facilities might scoff at the use of pigeons for communication  at barely over the - horizon ranges and dismiss it as something ancient, redundant or absolute but the zeal and application with which lientencnt commender B.K. Shroff and other pigeon operators handled their winged messengers needs to be appreciated in the context of any other affective and reliable ship-shore communication facilities during the twentieth century's thirties and forties'.

               
AE pse^ men pe y;eCz edebr bl;k; eqek keYki$ pi "

             inl;m m;nebr kt b;,I del dl
             ali=t peq e cel
             aSp atIt het aSfu$ sudUr yug;Nter.
             inl;m a;pn aNter 
             as'%* p;%Ir s;eq 
                   iden r;et
             AE b;s; z;; p;i% /;Y a;el;aN/k;er
             ek;n p;r het ek;n p;er.
             /BinY; i#ez xUn* ini%elr p;%;r A g;en
             ehq; nY an* ek;q; an* ek;q; an* ek;n%;en.

     a;x; kreb; p;%Iedr AE an* ek;q; an* ek;n%;en y;b;r At yuegr t;; a;m;edr jIbn/;r; b-;iceY r;%eb icridn icrk;l.
  

tq*sUcI "

1. in idI \ idI pUW, kum;r d
2.
Encyclopaedia Britannica
3. rbINd rcn;blI bl;k; 36 nr kibt; Ab' p;i%r e&;j
4.
The Birds - R.K. Kotpal
5.
World Birds - Brian P. Martin
6. el%ekr
Under Two Ensigns  
7.
The Times of India, Mumbai, April 8, 1941
8.
The Telegraph, Kolkata, September 3, 1983
9. piry;YI p;%Ir \pr b Clippings
     s'b;d p] \ pi]k; eqek
10. el%ekr gt 30 bzer el%; irs;cR epp;r men;g;f \ an*;n* rcn;.
 


" sUicp] "
smud[ mNqn 1 " &;rtIY enob;ihnIr rY*;l ebgl $;Eg;r
smud[ mNqn 2 " smud[pq " &;rtIY iteh*r rt;g;r
smud[ mNqn 3 " &;rtIY s;muidk iteh* Ak njr
smud[ mNqn 4 " ezciexr enoibed;h
smud[ mNqn 5 " j;h;j inmR;e, &;retr itih*k _kWR
smud[ mNqn 6 " edxegorb i]ibm
smud[ mNqn 7 " eno esn;r p;Yr; @;k b*bSh;
smud[ mNqn 8 " a;Nd;m;n \ inek;br &;retr s;muidk phrI
smud[ mNqn 9 " a;Nd;m;n inek;br \ l;=; Ippu

a;kR;E& sUicp]

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