smud[mNhn 2
&;rtIY s;muidk ith* j;tIY jIben Ak ann*s;/;r, idk. bidn /er a;mr; ibXbek AE ibexW e=e] pq edi%eyiz Ab' y;r s;=* Eith;s bhn ker celez. esE j;tIY &;bn;r IpnmN]ek i`erE a;m;edr pY;s smudmNhn.

   b;'l; xek;W anuy;YI smud kq;i$r a;$i$ x;Ntr a;ez " s;gr isN/u b;iri/ b;rIx a,Rb p;r;p;r jli/ \ rt;kr. be^;ps;gr a;rbs;gr &;rt mh;s;gr \ di=, em s'lg a*;N$;kRi$k mh;s;grpI a;m;edr jli/ al eqek pOiqbIr sbR;i/k \ sebR;m XbyR s'gh ker a;m;edrE a,Rbep;et t; edex ibedex rPt;nI kr;r m;/*em s;r; duinY;r b;i,ij*k e=e] xIWRSh;n ai/k;r krb;r Sbp a;mr; &;rtIYr; tOtIY shs;er etE ed%et keriz. es SbPndxRn abx* a;j\ ab*;ht Ab' &ibW*et t; p;Ye,r eex* n;n;n pirkLpn; gh, ker celiz. ikNtu A kq; men r;%et heb ey AE Sbpi$ b;Stb;iYt krb;r jen* a;m;edr y; p/;n sh;Yk heb t; hl &;retr s;midk Eith;si&ik wb+;ink anusN/;n \ AigeY cl;r pec;.
   &;retr t$s'lg p;eNtr m;nuW smued xy*; epet s;muidk ith* ge tulet ker pOiqbIr Eith;esr W;k;el l=;i/k bzr a;eg pUeb;Rii%t s;muidk Al;k;Y Ab' t; Eer;p \ an*;n* mh;edexr aenk a;eg. t;r p/;n dui$ k;r, izl Aki$ " emosumI b;Yu \ an*i$ " AE mh;smuedr
centre of gravity b; &;rekeNd &;retr abSh;n. sdR;r ek .Am. p;inKr t-;r India and the Indian Ocean bEeY ile%ezn 'The Indian Ocean has some of the features of a landlocked sea. Unlike the Pacific or the Atlantic which are like giant highways between the North and the South, this ocean is walled off on three sides by land with the southern side of Asia forming a roof over it. The continent of Africa constitutes the western wall, while Burma, Malaya, and the insular continuations protect the eastern side. But the vital feature which differentiates the Indian Ocean from the Pacific or the Atlantic is not the two sides but ( the most significant and strategic position of) the subcontinent of India which just far into the sea for a thousand miles to its tapering end at Kanya Kumari."
     AxIY \ Eer;pIY /mRgeNh s;ihet* pur;en &;SkeyR Sh;pet* ic]kl;Y pStr ilipet e%;d;Ek;eyR m;i$ pStr bLkl pcmR \ /;tur mud;Y &;W;Y s;m;ijk rIitet %;ed* ebx&UW;Y s^Iet aS]xS] \ yu ekoxel isN/u pt*k; s&*t;r se^ Eer;p piXcm AixY; a;ifk; di=, a;emirk; Ab' sudUr p;ec*r se^ s;muidk s'ey;egr pm;, aenk e=e]E p;\Y; egez
%IpUbR i]x dxk eqekE. sMpit srSbtI pt*k; s&*t; a;ib:k;err pr AE sMpkR ey a;er; itn eqek p-;c shs; puer;en; t;r yeq pm;,\ p;\Y; egez.
a;er; pm;, heYez ey pStr yueg a;ifk; eqek keYk h;j;r ineg; Shlpeq eg;\Y;n;l*; aitm ker &;ret Aes ep-oezizl. eg;\Y;n;l*; b l= bzr a;egr Aki$ mh;edx y;r ibSt;r izl &;rt eqek di=, a;ifk; di=, a;emirk; di=, em \ aeS$ilY; pyRNt. per AE ineg;r; bs'%*k g;ezr -i eqek wtrI enok;Y be^;ps;gr p;r heY a;Nd;m;n \ inek;br dBIppue igeY ep-oz;Y; a;jekr a;Nd;m;enr j;Y; \i^ esiN$enilj Et*;id pj;itr m;nuW AedrE b'x/r.
    &;rt \ Eer;epr smudpeq b;i,ij*k sMpekRr aenk dO;Nt a;ez. b;Eebelr \L@ e$S$;emeN$ &;retr keYki$ j;Yg;r n;emr \ &;rtIY keYki$ p,*s;mgIr kq;r e% a;ez. sudUr p;ec* r a;ifk;Y piXcm AixY; Ab' di=, Eer;ep p;\Y; em;her \ mO_p;e]r &g;'ex en;r s;/nI (tool) yN]p;it Amnik rN/np;e]r zib eqek pm;, p;\Y; y;Y ey A%;nk;r pkUlbtIR edxilet (eymn suemr imxr I$ p;rs* di=, cIn x*;medx j;&; \ sum;];Y) smudpeq p,*s;mgI egez b shs; /er. cIn a;rb p;rs* \ Eer;epr aenk pirb;jekr el%;et\ AE e% a;ez. sMpit jr;etr el;q;l n;em Aki$ j;Yg;Y p;Y zh;j;r bzr a;eg inimRt pOiqbIr sbeceY b @;E @k (dry dock) a;ib:kOt heYez.
   
smudpeq y;t;Y;etr i&iet Eer;ep &;rtIY &;W; s;iht* /mR dxRn Et*;id j;nb;r \ eb;Zb;r ec; ey b bzr /er heY a;sez es kq; a;mr; j;in. ib%*;t &;rtibd g;E srm*;n (Guy Sorman) t-;r sd*pk;ixt id ijinY;s af EiY; n;mk geNh belezn " yid\ &;rtek eb;Zb;r ec; b shs; /er bb;r heYez gt a;;E h;j;r bzer Indomania b; &;rtek j;nb;r a;k;;r mh;tr^ e#ez c;rb;r. pqm mh;tr^ \e# sm;$ aex;ekr smY y%n gIk imxrIY ihbӳ \ a;rb /mRt;iBk \ d;xRinkedr se^ icNt; \ +;n ibinmeYr jen* sm;$ aex;k jlpeq piXcm AixY; r a;ifk; \ di=, Eer;ep keYk x x;S]+ ebo i&=uk p;i#eYizeln. ArE fel ebo/;imRk \ s;m;ijk icNt;/;r; %I;n /emR \ /mRgeNh aenk%;in pitfilt heYez.
    idBtIY mh;tr^ \e# a;dx xt;Iet Eer;pIY ibexW ker fr;sI d;xRinkedr me/* Aki$ ibexW smeY y;ek d;xRink Eith;es
The Period of Enlightenment n;em ai&iht kr; hY. AE smeY &;retr puer;en; \ smO /mRt;iBk \ d;xRink icNt;/;r; ibxd&;eb anu/;bn ker d;xRink &le$Y;r (16941778) belizeln 'The whole earth needs India. India alone needs no one.' ex;epnh;\Y;r (Schopenhauer) \ nI$ex\ (Nietzsche) AE ibWeY icNt; \ gebW,; ker keYki$ s;rg&R puStk ile% egezn.
 
   ib'x xt;Ir tOtIY dxek a;es tOtIY mh;tr^ y%n er-;m; er-;l; (Romain Rolland), mh;t; g;N/I r;mkO prmh's \ Sb;mI ibebk;neNdr \pr t-;r aibSr,IY gNhki$ rcn; kern. g;E srm*;n belezn 'The central theme of these works - the efficacy of non-violence, the respect for cultural diversity, the need to change oneself as a prelude to changing the world found favourable echoes in the feminist and ecological movements in the west; later there were similar echoes in the anti- Vietnam War protests and cultural activities around the globe.'
        Indomania r ctuqR mh;tr^i$ bEez A%n Ab' Eer;p \ piXcemr an*;n* edex t; yeq c;el*r sOi kerez. srm*;enr met 'Despite its abysmal poverty, its communal and cast strife, Indian democracy, India's carefully calibrated economic reforms, India's IT exuberance and he resurgence of Indian popular and classical culture, including literature, music, yoga, ayurveda, vegetarianism, pranayama, dance, cinema, food, and fashion; are attracting the attention of the West as never before. The West detects in the Indian experience answers to some questions raised by the West's material success.'
pUebR \ piXcem itni$ mh;edexr se^ smudpeq &;retr b h;j;r bzr /er kOi \ bi,j* sMpekRr pm;, mh;edxel;etE zieY a;ez. %IpUbR itn h;j;r bzr a;eg inimRt r (Ur) Ab' sm;$ enbuk;@enj;err (Nebuchadnezzar) p;s;ed ey k;e#r t; \ q;m p;\Y; egez t; eh;l &;rtIY $Ik \ edbd; g;ezr -i eqek inimRt. ihbӳ &;W;Y b-;drek ek;f (s'SkOt kip) \ mYUrek $uiK (t;iml e$;g;E) bel. gIk \ l*;i$n &;W;Y &;rtIY xer abd;n a;irj (rice- t;iml a;irib) Aemr;L@ (emerald- s'SkOt mrkt) ebirl (beryl- s'SkOt wbduyR) ij;r (ginger- s'SkOt sO^e&r;) ep;r (pepper- s'SkOt ipil) sug;r (sugar- s'SkOt xkRr;) \ k$n (cotton- s'SkOt k;pR;s). s'SkOet gIk &;W;r d;n hora (hr aqR;_ `N$;) ekNd ek;, su^ kMpn (k*;Mp b; ixibr aeqR) \ klm. gIk x a;lmug (s'SkOt bLgu aqR;_ cNdn) Ab' es;f;r; (muEeYr k;ez sup;r; bNderr n;m eqek) edexr $;Y;r r;ej*r r;j; ihrm dB;r; a;md;nIkOt. ptRugIj &;W; eqek ihiNd b;l; \ an*;n* &;rtIY &;W;Y keYk h;j;r x Aesez y;r me/* an*tm a;c;r a;n;ns(a;n;rs) b;iL$ (b;lit) ibSku$ eb;t;m inl;m mmRr emj ikd;r; (ekd;r;) pg;r (m;Een) m;sk;b;r igjR; t;l; c;ib j;n;l; Et*;id.
   egBed p;\Y; y;Y smudedbt; b,edebr n;m y-;r a;xIbR;d z;; smudy;];Y y;\Y; inr;pd men kr; ht n;. a;j\ b,edebr a;xIbR;d s;r; &;ret smudibh;er smudyue b; ntun j;h;j jel &;s;en;r smY p;qRn; kr; hY. Sb;/Int;r pr Sb;/In &;retr enob;ihnIr jen* Aki$ ntun eS$ (crest) b; b*;j pirkiLpt hY 1948 s;el y;r jen* t%nk;r &;rtIY g&Rnr ejn;erl xI is. r;j;eg;p;lc;ir egBd eqek Aki$ p;qRn; ebez edn xm en; b," aqR;_ eh smud edbt; b, et;m;r a;xIbR;d eyn inrNtr p;E.
    egBd eqek p;#kedr jen* a;r\ Aki$ s;muidk p;qRn; Ot kir "
               idBeW; en; ibXbet;mu%;it n;ebb p;rY.
               s n" isN/uimb n;bY;it pWR; SbSteY..

      (eh prm;t; tuim ibeXbr sbRidek mu% `uireY r;e%;; x]ek t;r jly;en smuedr apr p;er ep-oez idgeNtr se^ iblIn ker d;\; a;m;edr trIek ibx;l x;iNtr smud p;r ker pu,* \ smOi
r edex ep-oez d;\.)
aqbR ebed a;ez enok; \ j;h;j inmR;e,r kq; y;r e%;l izl pxSt m;S
tul t \ mjbut Ab' g#n s;muidk Z s;ml;en;r jen* p;k;. r;m;Ye, e% p;E s;muidk b;i,ej*r kq; el;iht s;gerr se^ \ a;er; Ak edexr se^ ey edex ep;k; eqek erxmI suet; eber;Y (cIn). mh;&;ret p;bedr ibx;l enob;ihnIr dI`R b,Rn; reYez. bO= a;YuebRed a;ez j;h;j inmR;e,r ibxd ibbr,.
   sMpit Ee;enixY; me, j;k;tR; b;il Ab' a;er; keYki$ j;Yg;Y igeY a;im ai&&Ut heY peizl;m Esl;imk edex &;rtIY s'SkOitr p&;b ede%. ebx&UW;Y s;ihet* nOet* s^Iet &;W;Y n;em \ s;m;ijk rIitnIitet \edex &;rtIY s'SkOitr pit/Bin p;\Y; y;Y sb j;Yg;Y sbR Ster. \-edr r;m;Y, nOt*n;i$k; b; &;rtIY n;emr b*bh;r a;m;edr a;XcyR ker edY. Ee;enixY b;h;s;Y (aqR;_ &;W;Y) S]Iel;k hl bi,t; emeYedr Skul kn*; ibd*;lY a;r absrp;Pt wsinkedr a;b;s bOd ey;d gh aqR;_ bO ey;; gOh (Old Soldiers' Home).
     
j;k;tR;r sbeceY be; p-;cm;q; r;St;r eg;lcKer ed%ebn \edr j;tIY mnuemN$ pSter e%;d;E ibr;$ a;k;err s;ti$ e`;;Y $;n; req mh;&;retr ajRun \ xIkO. kO;jRuenr At be; \ suNdr S;rk &;ret ek;q;\ enE. A edexr muslm;n emeYedr n;em p;ebn p;bRtI inmRl; aPsr; rit edbI Amin aenk ihNdu n;m. A%;nk;r r;pit a;ur rhm;n \Y;ihedr S]Ir n;m sI; aqR;_ sIt;. pr;pitr n;m em`;btI suk,Rpu]I.
Ee;enixY;r wb+;inkedr pirkiLpt e;j;h;j dui$r n;m aj;tx] \ `e$;_kc. r=; mN];leYr
(n;m y gOh) ibr;$ dPterr b;Eerr ed\Y;el dx fu$ -cu a=er e%;d;E kr; a;ez &;rtIY dxRenr mmRkq; ctu/mR Ak kmR. Ak$u AigeY ed%et p;ebn eSp;$Rs mN];lY n;m I; &i.
    Ee;enixY;r -cu pyR;eYr mud; b; en;e$ p;ebn ge,exr pitkOit. r;pit &benr s;men ed%ebn Aki$ aitk;Y ge,exr mUiR. p;Y sb a|;ilk;r pebx peqr dup;ex ed%; y;eb dui$ ibx;l pSterr dB;rp;l. imijY;em igeY ed%un ihNdu \ ebo r;j; \ edbedbIr eml; bu aex;k ixb p;bRtI ibu dugR; ibe`Xbr bӆ;edb Et*;id.
    The Times of India r sMp;dk xIidlIp pg-;\k;r sMpit j;k;tR;r r;pit \Y;ihedr se^ s;=;_k;el &;rtIY s'SkOitr p&;b seN/ ikzu a;el;cn; kerizeln . r;pit \Y;ihd t-;ek bleln a;medr edex pit Ster pit s'g#en s;m;ijk rIitet &;rtIY s'SkOitr p&;b ibStOt. mh;&;rt gIt; pinWd ebd \ ibexW&;eb r;m;Y, p;Y sb;E pen. in a;er; bleln r;m;Ye, a;m;r sbeceY ipY cir] hl kuk,R iyin t-;r edxek p;,;i/k &;lb;setn ikNtu t-;r ;t;r k;k;r%;n; ede% `uemr &;n ker pe q;ketn. ikNtu edexr y%n e`;r ibpd ed%; idl t%n itin yue=e] igeY mh;pr;m edi%eY mOtubr, kreln. AE et; prm bIr edx seN/ a;el;cn; k;el in bleln 'We share the idea of Kumbhakarna as the defender and the saviour of the just.' h;j;r h;j;r bzerr smudpeq &;rtIY s;'SkOitk \ d;xRink ai&y;enr Ai$ AE p&;ebr prm rm,IY indxRn.
    a;m;edr s;muidk Eith;esr a;er; aenk kq; aenk `$n; n;n;n j;Yg;Y a;ez y; h;ireY y;\Y; p-uiq \ teq* ed%et p;\Y; y;Y. t;r keYki$ hl"
    1. ]eY;dx xt;Ir pirb;jk m;ekR; ep;el; t-;r @;eYrIet ile% egezn ey t%n &;ret inimRt j;h;ej q;ket; c;ri$ m;Stul ec;i$ \Y;$;r$;E$ kMp;$RemN$ W;$i$ ekibn \ dxi$ l;Efeb;$ \ en. ctudRx xt;Iet E$;ilY;n pirb;jk f;Y;r \e@;irk (Friar Odoric) &;ret ede% egezn 100 $enr j;h;j y; 700 y;]I bhn kret p;ret;. eW;x xt;Iet Et;lIY pirb;jk isj;r i@ ef@iric (Cesare di Fredrici) ile%ezn ey es smY &;ret %ub ep; j;h;j wtrI ht Ab' esjen* tuekRr sult;n aenk m;lb;hI \ enob;ihnIr j;h;j !;k;Y wtrI kireY smudpeq tuekR ineY eyetn. em;gl a;mel mg \ ifiri^ jlds*uedr a;m, eqek r;j* b-;c;b;r jen* p,*b*bs;eYr jen* \ hjy;]Iedr mK;Y p;#;en;r jen* j;h;j wtrI ht !;k;Y xInger l;eh;er \ sur;et. pqm itni$ j;Yg; eqek j;h;j ndIpeq smued ineY y;\Y; ht.
    2. %IpUbR tOtIY dxek sm;$ cNdӇPt emoeyRr a;mel Aki$ n;\ pirWd b; naval headquarters izl y;r k,R/;r izeln Akjn n;\ a/*= (Admiral).
     3. 1775 s;el m;] 16 bzr bYes im@ixpm*;n (per a*;@imr;l l@R) enlsn l@R eni&r is hsR (Sea Horse). j;h;ej j;&; y;\Y;r peq mumb;E a;esn \ per esE j;h;ejE ek;lk;t; y;n. keYk m;s b;ed ek;lk;t; eqek @lifn (Dolphin) j;h;ej itin ibelt ifer y;n.
     4. &;rtIY enoesn; b;ihnIet pqm &;rtIY kimxn@ aifs;r izeln xI i@.An.mu%;jIR iyin 1928 s;el enoesn;r EiinY;ir' x;%;r s;belfe$n*;N$ (Sub-Lieutenant) heY &itR hn Ab' ciexr dxek k*;eP$n ped absr enn. 1946 s;el reYl EiY;n eni&et n;ibkr; ibed;h ker Sb;/Int;r ey d;m;m; b;ijeYizl esE ibed;ehr ent; \ puer;/; izeln Akjn b;;lI n;ibk. ili@' isgn*;lm*;n (Leading Signalman) xI ib.is. d. Ein per ib+;penr jget aenk it kern Ab' btRm;en muEeYr k;ez Aki$ a;dxR pI Sh;pn ker sm;j esb;Y btI a;ezn.
     5. keYk shs; a;eg pUbR &;retr ec;l; p;iY; ecr; Et*;id b'exr r;j;r; kil^ \ etelr; Ab' piXcm pkUelr jr;t ek;n \ ekr;l;r ai/b;sIr; s;'SkOitk \ keYki$ e=e] s;mirk ai&y;n c;ileYizeln pUebR m;leYixY; x*;m sum;]; j;&; bmR; q;El*; k;MpuicY; ifilipns Ab' a;er; keYki$ edex piXcm pUbR \ r a;ifk;Y piXcm AixY;r \ di=, Eer;epr keYki$ j;Yg;Y.
     6. sPtm xt;Ir pqm dxek jr;etr Akjn r;j; t-;r pu]ek 100i$ j;h;ej keYk h;j;r wsink ixLpI ikW;n icik_sk puer;iht k;irgr el%k Et*;idr s;eq k;MpuicY;Y p;#;n. A-r; esedex Aki$ ntun s&*t; \ kOi Sh;pn kern. a;r A-edrE abd;n eb;er;buduer miNdr y;r Sh;pt*wxlI \ k;k;eyRr _keWRr %*;it a;j\ ibXbej;;.
     7. 1857 s;elr isp;hI ibed;ehr smY rY*;l EiY;n eni&r keYki$ j;h;j eqek ebx keYki$ ibx;l k;m;n keYki$ em;$r eb;e$ n;m;en; hY t;rpr esE em;$r eb;$il g^; \ ymun; (ndI dui$ t%n aenk g&Ir izl) ndIpeq idIr `;e$r k;ez a;n; hY. \E k;m;nilr eg;l;Y idI sherr ibr;$ ibr;$ eloh \ p[Str inimRt kp;$ Ab' ed\Y;l e&e^ ibed;hIedr dmn kr; heYizl. AE %yue bIrtB ed%;en;r jn* enob;ihnIr dui$ aifs;r im@ixpm*;n emeY; (Midshipman Mayo) \ a*;i' m;S$;r icekn (Acting Master Chiken) ek i&e;irY; x (Victoria Cross) pdek &UiWt kr; heYizl.
     8. g^;jl dUW, ineY aenk wb+;ink anusN/;n \ a;el;cn; clez b bzr /er. ikNtu g^;jelr dui$ pkOitr kq; %ubE km el;k j;enn. pqmt" 200 bzr a;eg y%n sueYj p,;lI izl n; t%n j;h;ej Aienr b*bh;r pcilt hY in t;E j;h;j p;elE clet;. esEsmY Eer;p eqek a;sb;r smY j;h;ej en\Y; %;b;r jl s;t a;$ idenE %;r;p heY eyet;. esE jen* pit bNder ep-oez $*; %;il ker a;b;r jl &ret het;. ikNtu ek;lk;t; eqek efr;r peq ey jl en\Y; ht t; il&;rpul ep-oz;en; pyRNt Aekb;er i#k q;ket; t;r k;r, t; izl g^;jl.
     AE pse^ a;r\ Aki$ `$n;r e% kr; eyet p;er. jYpuerr isi$ p*;eles s;\Y;E m;n is' imijY;em dui$ erop*inimRt jl;/;r a;ez y;r piti$r \jn 365 ekij Ab' t;et jl /er 900 il$;r iheseb. jYpuerr mh;r;j; s;\Y;E m;n is' 1902 s;el rkm itni$ p;e] p;n kr; \ h;tmu% e/;Y;r jn* g^;jl &er Eer;p sfer r\n; hn. hirdB;r eqek g^;jl &er p;]el;ek muE eqek j;h;jey;eg E'l*; ineY y;\Y; hY. a;rb s;gr p;r h\Y;r smY Ar Aki$ smudedbt; b,edebr eex* _sgR ker smeud @uibeY ed\Y; hel\ b;ik dui$r jl e$n \ j;h;ej y;t;Y;etr smY Ab' E'l*;e mh;r;ejr ed m;s q;k;k;el b*bh;r kr; heYizl.
    s;\Y;E m;n is' %ub r=,xIl \ /;imRk pkOitr m;nuW izeln. t;E Eer;pIYedr se^ Amnik sm;$ pm jejRr se^ krmdRn ker\ g^;jel h;t /ueY xrIr eqek emCz s'SpxR dUr kretn. em;$ p;Y c;rm;s /er jl b*bh;r h\Y; seB\ t; ibNdum;] %;r;p hYin y; g^;jelr m;h;t*ek pun"pitit ker.
    igens buk af \Y;L@R erk@Rs anuy;YI p;]il pOiqbIr sbRbOh_ erop*inimRt jl;/;r y; wtrI kerizeln dujn erop*k;r eg;ibNd n;r;Y, \ mh;edb Ab' wtrI kret smY elegizl p;Y itn bzr. A s'b;d pirebxn kerezn s\Y;E m;n is' imijY;emr @;Eerr xI yduebNd is'.
    idBtIYt" smued q;k;k;lIn ey ek;en; j;h;ejr e%;elr nIec jl eqek ut Ak /re,r sU= p;,I p*;$n (plankton) j;h;ejr g;eY eleg eyet q;ek. keYk m;esE AE p*;$n Ar pelpi$ a;$ nY Ei pu \ %ubE a;#;el; heY y;Y fel j;h;ejr git aenk$; h;s epet q;ek. AEjen* pit zm;s aNtr j;h;jek @;E @ek !uikeY t;r jl b;r ker tl;$; pir:k;r kret hY y; ebx smY xm \ %rc s;ep=. ikNtu 
%ubE a;XceyRr ibWY ey ek;en; klk;t;g;mI j;h;j s;grdBIp heY glI ndI ideY i%idrpuer ep-oz;et 
ep-oz;etE esE p*;$n pelp t; es ytE pu eh;k n; ekn Aekb;er gel y;Y Ab' j;h;ejr tl; a;pn;a;pin pir:k;r heY y;Y. Ai$ g^;jelr a;erk m;h;t*
    p;let;l; j;h;ejr yueg ibd*uetr a&;eb AY;rkixn@ ekibn et; izl n;. t;E il&;rpul eqek j;h;j di=,pUebR mu;E b; klk;t;Y y%n a;set; t%n j;h;ejr b-;idek b; ep;$R s;Ee@r (Port side) aep=;kOt #;; ekibn buk krb;r smY irj;e&Rxn femR ek;nidek ekibn c;E j;n;et il%et het; portside during the outward journey and starboard side during homeward journey. AE el%;i$ per ez;$ ker el%; ht port outwards starboard home-wards a;er; per a;er; s'e=ep el%; ht p.o.s.h Ab' AE eqekE E'irij posh kq;i$ gi#t b; ut heYez.
    pqm idek rY*;l EiY;n eni&r ebixr &;g n;ibkE izl eg;r;. p;let;l; j;h;ej t;edr wdink br; izl keYk mg jl /u %;b;r \ mu% e/;b;r jen* j;h;ej S;n krb;r ek;n pxE izl n;. i]x cix idn smued k;i$eY j;h;j y%n bNder pebx kret; t%n pqemE @;k pet; n;iptedr e=orkmR \ m;q;Y ceMp; aqR;_ m;ilx \ e/;l;EeYr jen* eg;r; n;ibkedr Cc;r, ibkOitet AE ceMp;E x*;Mpuet (shampoo) pir,t heYez.
mh;r;er be @;k (Bombay Duck) -$ik m;z at*Nt p;edY \ s;r; pOiqbIet c;l;n y;Y. AE m;zi$r m;r;#I &;W;Y n;m bmi@l; E'erjedr Cc;re, ibkOitet
a;j bmi@l; Bombay Duck A pir,t heYez .
    ec; n; kerE h#;_ ikzu a;ib:k;r krb;r =mt;ek E'erjIet bel serendipity. sudUr p;ec* mxl;r sN/;en y;b;r peq Eer;pIYr; is'hl dBIp h#;_E a;ib:k;r kerizl. is'hl dBIp n;m Cc;r, kret n; eper t;r; AE dBIpi$ek n;m edY Serendip Ab' Ar eqekE serendipity xi$ ut heYez. 1754 s;el el%k Horace Walpole Aki$ ib%*;t pn*;s ele%n n;m The Three Princes of Serendip.
E'erj a;mel s;ehbr; ek;E h*;Y(qui hi) bel @;kelE c;kr d;sI a;Y;r; edoe
a;st bel ktR;r; ek;E h*;Y Ar m;en /er ineYizeln &Ot*. AE&;ebE \r; beNd;bSt bundobast, ek;mrb
N/ek cummerband, Et*;id blet ker.
E'erij &;W;Y &;rtIY &;W; aNt&Ruir Aki$ suNdr dO;Nt p;E AE dui$ &;W;r bl imxe,r sln Hobson Jobson ai&/;en (AE n;mi$ EY; h;s;n EY; esenr E'irijkOt p) " Returning to her bungalow (ihiNd b;'l;) she threw her calico (m;lY;lm k;ilk$ aqR;_ ek;r; em;$; sutIr k;p. &;eSk; @; g;m; 1
492 s;el k;ilke$ en;r efelizeln) coat on the teak (m;l;Y;lm e$K;) table and put on her gingham (m;l;Y;lm ij^*;m aqR;_ tuel;Y eb;n; imih k;p) apron. There was the tea caddy (m;l;Y;lm k;i| aqR;_ c;eYr b;) to fill, the chutney (ihiNd c;$in) to prepare for the curry (t;iml k;i), pepper (s'SkOt ipil), mulligatawny (t;imlmulgtiaqR;_ eg;lmirecr jl) soup and cheroots (t;iml|u) to order from the bazar (ihiNdb;j;r). She would give the ayah (A*;'el;EiY;niZ) a chit (b;'l;ici#). The children were out in the dinghy (ihiNdi@i^) and the khaki (dRu %;k aqR;_ /uel;) dungarees (ihiNd @;'ir aqR;_ i!el p*;N$) were sure to be wet. She needed to apply gingili (ihiNd iji]il b; itl) oil to her hair after a shampoo (ihiNd ceMp;), she still had to send her husband's pyjamas (ihiNd p;j;m;) to the dhobi (ihiNd e/;ib), and she never had finished those chintz (ihiNd ic$ b; iz$) hangings for the verandah (ihiNdb;r;Nd;). But first puttuing on a shawl (dRuxl) around her shoulders, she poured her husband a punch (ihiNdp-;c aqR;_ p-;ci$ deb*r imx, sur; du/ elbur rs icin \ mxl;). 1612 s;elr 5E eseP$r pqm ey ibi$x j;h;ji$ &;ret ep-oz;Y \ sur;$ bNder pebx ker esE j;h;ejr k,R/;r k*;eP$n EilY;m hikNs a;g;Y em;gl sm;e$r drb;er pqm b;r AE p-;ecr Sb;d epeY em;iht heY Ar n;m ere%izeln punch.
        'History' xi$r [_pi heYez b h;j;r bzr a;eg gIk x 'histor' eqek y;r aqR izl 'knowledge and judgement' aqR;_ +;n \ ibc;r. per l*;i$n x 'historia' Aet a;er; Aki$ aqR ey;g ker 'narration' b; b,R,. ikNtu Atidn /er ey Eith;s Skuel b; kelej p;#* iheseb b*bh;r kr; heY a;sez gt duex; bzr /er t;et s;/;r, m;nueWr kq; sMpU,R&;eb pirt*;g ker /u r;j; b;dx;ehr jn ibb;h mOt*u pirb;r yibgh jY pr;jY Et*;id z;; a;r ikzuE etmn p;\Y; y;Y n;. t;E a;j s;r; pOiqbImY a;/uink Eith;sek e!el s;ijeY m;nueWr s;m;ijk jIben ix=; sm;jb*bSh; &;W; kOi Sb;Sh* ixLp Et*;idr mibbtRn ineY ccR; heYez. a;m;edr s;muidk Eith;es\ AE rkm pirbtRenr peY;jn. men r;%et heb Ai$ historiography aqR;_ wb+;ink i&iet Eith;s el%b;r yug hagiography b; b*ii&ik p;%*;n el%b;r nY. m;nb s&*t;Y &;retr abd;n kt%;in t; ineY inribiCz anusN/;n peY;jn Ab' n;girkedr s;men es st* d`;i$t h\Y;r me/*E Eith;esr s;qRkt;.

tq*sU] "

1. A S$;i@ af ihiS$ a;rnL@ $eYnib
2. id ihiS$ af isi&l;Eejxn El \ AireYl @ur*;N$
3. EiY; a*; id EiY;n \xn sdR;r ek.Am. p;inKr
4. id EiY;n \xn A*;l;n i&ilY;sR
5. A ihiS$ af EiY;n ixip' r;/;kumud mue%;p;/*;Y
6. A ihiS$ af id EiY;n eni& km;;r jjR \Y;k;r
7. $;Ems af EiY;Y pk;ixt sMp;dk idlIp pg-;\krAr keyki$ s;Mpitk rcn;
8. el%ekr a;;r $u Anisns irs;cR epp;r men;g;f \ gt i]x bzerr el
%; pk;ixt rcn;


" sUicp] "
smud[ mNqn 1 " &;rtIY enob;ihnIr rY*;l ebgl $;Eg;r
smud[ mNqn 2 " smud[pq " &;rtIY iteh*r rt;g;r
smud[ mNqn 3 " &;rtIY s;muidk iteh* Ak njr
smud[ mNqn 4 " ezciexr enoibed;h
smud[ mNqn 5 " j;h;j inmR;e, &;retr itih*k _kWR
smud[ mNqn 6 " edxegorb i]ibm
smud[ mNqn 7 " eno esn;r p;Yr; @;k b*bSh;
smud[ mNqn 8 " a;Nd;m;n \ inek;br &;retr s;muidk phrI
smud[ mNqn 9 " a;Nd;m;n inek;br \ l;=; Ippu

a;kR;E& sUicp]

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