n;$k eqek jIbn jIbn eqek n;$k a;m;edr p[et*ekr jIbn Ab' c;rp;exr clm;n sm;j jIbenr clCzibE Ak Ak$; n;$k b; n;$ekr a'x. cl;r peq km ebxI ai&nY\ kir a;mr; . n;$kiqeY$;err p[it t;E a;m;edr aNterr $;n a;r g&Ir &;lb;s;. a;r n;$kiqeY$;r ineY b;'l;r m;nueWr pq cl;r dI`R 202 bzerr Eith;s. b;'l;r s'SkOitet n;$kiqeY$;r t;E Ak aibeCz a'x. n;$ekr pSq;pn;Y a;m;edr &;bn; aenk.
b;'l;r g[p iqeY$;r ineY gt 25 bzerr Aki$ per%; ile%ezn n;$* ibexW+ pib] srk;r Ab;er.

b;'l; n;$k 19802005
pib] srk;r

   
   A&;eb ek;n Ak$; inidR bzr eqek a;el;cn; kr;r ibpd AE ey \E bzer %ub ibPlb;tk b; yug;Ntk;rI ikzu `e$ez Amn men kr; eyetE p;er. s;/;r,t Eith;esr `$n; es&;eb `e$n; dxk ekn xtk /er ihesb krel\ n;. dxk xt;I bzr m;s Et*;id hl m;nueWr g; abSk b; a*;b[; zk. fel a=;'x ;i`m; emen eymn edexr sIm;n; hY n; etmnE bzr /er\ ek;n\ n;$ekr b; m;nueWr ek;n\ sOjn`$n;r k;l;Ntr hY n;. an*idek Ak$; bzr yid e% kir t;hel AmnE /;r,; het p;er ey
a;mr; buiZ bzr /er n;$ekr Ak$; ili ker y;b du Ak$; mNtb* sh. n; A inbeN/ t; a;m;edr l=* nY. a;mr; mUlt g[p iqeY$;err b;'l; n;$ekr ey /;r; t;r ibi& es[;til ed%;en;r ec; krb. 

   A%;en p;#kedr jn* A kq;\ s'e=ep bel en\Y; &;l ey AE g[p iqeY$;err n;$kE 1944 eqek aWR;_ &;rtIY g,n;$* se`r nb; 24 ae;br1944 eqek ker mx b;'l; n;$ekr mUl /;r; heY e#ez. ;r x[Ir^m imn;&;R rmhelr epx;d;r n;$k p;x;p;ix clizl. p;x \ W;e$r bzrilet ;er Ab' x[Ir^m &;; ibXbp;Y zex; s;tex; r;i]r n;$k\ celez. epx;d;r r^m
k%n\ g[p iqeY$;err k;ez k%n\ b; cliCce]r k;ez h;t epetez. ikNtu W;e$r bzrilr exeW t;r mOtu*`N$; b;jl Ab' serr dxek h;j;r k*;b;er #;s; n;$ek\ t;r punIbn sb hl n;. \idek 1948 eqek 1980r me/* b;'l; g[p iqeY$;er Aesezn AEsb
wdt*p[itm p[it&; xu im] pirc;lkai&ent;n;$*k;r _pl d pirc;lkai&ent; n;$*k;raijetx beNd*;p;/*;Y pirc;lkai&ent; Ab' duAki$ mUl*b;n n;$ekr s[;. ibjn &|;c;yR n;$*k;rai&ent;pirc;lk iyin cel egeln a;eg. xu im] 1972 A n;$*pirc;ln;r d;iYt eqek ibd;Y ineYezn aijetx 1983 et celE egeln. _pl d a;r\ aenkidn n;$k \ sbR&;rtIY b;'l; \ ihiNd cliCc] jget d;pe$ a;i/pt* kreln. izeln sibt;b[t d ex%r ce|;p;/*;Y bI mue%;p;/*;Y ej;zn diStd;r a;ezn \E l smeYr SmOit +;enx mue%;p;/*;Y. izeln Aki$ ibkLp /;r;y t, r;Y_pl der shp;#I. ArE me/* Aesezn a;r\ n;$*k;r em;iht ce|;p;/*;Y men;j im] Ein pirc;lk ai&ent;\ be$n Aesezn a, mue%;p;/*;Y 1972A hEhE ker m;rIc s'b;d ineY. bpI il$l iqeY$;r g[p \ ippls il$l iqeY$;r n;NdIk;r pk;r iqeY$;r Ein$ c;bR;k. yid bil 1980 prbtRI b;'l; n;$k Aedr Ab' Asb delr sNtitedr wtir t;hel etmn atu*i heb n;. men;j b;Ep;s s;jR;irr per\
A%n\ tumul siY a,ek Ak$u absrjIbn y;pn kret ed%iz. ikNtu ae,r cmkp[d a;ib&;Rebr bzr zeYk a;egE esE 1966 etE n;NdIk;r e&e Aes iqeY$;r \Y;kRxp wtir ker ib&;s cbtRI a;r aex;k mue%;p;/*;Y. t;-edr =mt; \ a;tp[t*Y edi%eYizeln el;ilt; \ z;Y;Y a;el;Y sh Ak;i/k cm_k;r p[ey;jn; wtir ker. 1971 Ar r;jr a;r 1972 Ar nrk lj;r et; Smr,IY `$n;.

   a;m;r met &;rt cIn yuer pr eqek seN/ebl;Y inr;p;r k;re, n;n; ineW/;+; nkx;lpNhIedr
&Y Ab' serr sN];esr fel jIbny;];Y ;&;ibk ainXcYt; epx;d;r m \ g[p iqeY$;r &eYrE s'k$ `ineY et;el. epx;d;r m k*;b;er $*;b;er Aen sb;E abx* t; kernin a;ixr dxekr m;Z;m;iZ pyRNt p[;,p, ec; ker Ab' t;rper exW heY y;Y. g[p iqeY$;r bN/ hYin br' r;jr Ar met; n;$k serr wr;c;err Ak /re,r p[tIkI p[itb;d heYE a;es. bpI xu ime]r a;tp[t*;h;err pr tOiPt ime]r entOet keYki$ l p[ey;jn; ph;r edY. tOiPt im]\ k;lem bpI eze pm wbidk wtir kern per kum;r r;Y esE eg;Ir &;r k;-e/ tuel enn. A%n beY;&;r \ an*;n* k;re, dubRl h\Y; se\ esE d;iYt itin sm;n x[m \ in;Y bhn ker celezn yid\ t;-r duAki$ ixW* p[ixW*\ wtir heYez.

2

   a;mr; an*] beliz g,n;$* eqek ebireY Aes a;l;d; al;d; n;$*eg;I wtir kr;r mUel izl suinidR r;jwnitk beb*r b;Eer a;r Ak$u prI=; inrI=; \ a;;denr j;Yg; wtir kr;. t; ek;n aeqRE g,n;$* nIitr iber;i/t; nY. A$; hetE p;er ey
k%n\ k%n\ ek;n\ ek;n\ n;$ek prI=; inrI=; \ ai&nbetr ik'b; b*igt ai&nYs;bn;r a;kWR, g,n;e$*r bit m;nuWek sectn kr;r l=* eqek ek;n\ ek;n\ n;$ekr dlek Ak$u duer ineY egez. eymn n;NdIk;err n;$*k;err sN/;en zi$ cir] b; exr a;fg;n. Arkm&;eb aenk delr a;r\ aenk n;$ekr
e% kr; eyetE p;er. ikNtu t; se\ Akq; bl; y;eb n; ey A dlil jniber;/I b; am;nibk b; puer;dSr p[itiY;xIl heY egez. xtkr; nE &;g dl ek;n\ n; ek;n\ &;eb g,n;$* a;eNd;ln \ &;rtIY kimin$ a;eNd;lenr k;z;k;iz eqekez t;r me/* aenekE m;nueWr ibexWt &;retr dir m;nueWr jn* t;edr ixLpgt d;Y sMbeN/ sectn izl. skelr sb n;$ek in&Rul \ Sp&;eb r;jwnitk ix=; \ l;En n; q;kel\ A$; st*. esjn* tkR ibtkR sm;el;cn; p[t*ursbE heYez ikNtu g[p iqeY$;err dlilr me/* s'hitr Sh;ni$ n hYin.

   t;r aqR AE nY ey dl &;ein. bpIr dI`R Eith;es t; e&e ni$ dl h\Y;r %br r;i% t;r per inXcYE a;r\ e&eezesoim] bsu p[it; kerezn t;-r inejr dl. n;NdIk;r eqek heYez iqeY$;r \Y;kRxp t; ibix heY 1988 n;g;d hl ib&;s cbtRIr an* iqeY$;r. inejr h;et g; n;NdIk;r ibiCz heY aijetx wtir kern 1977 n;NdImu%. AE &;g;&;ig&;;&;ir
me/* p[;qimk men;e=;& \ itt; inXcYE wtir heYez teb per t;r tIb[t; aenk$;E p[ximt heYez Ab' a;egk;r shkmRIedr se^ Akse^ k;j kr;r men;&;b ed%; igeYez. A ibWeY a;m;r Ak$; b*itmI mt AE ey dl &;;r Ak$; sufl\ a;ez. n;NdIk;r
eqek n; eber;el ib&;s cbtRI b; aex;k mue%;p;/*;Y Amn pU,R;^ n;$*b*it heY #etn ik n; seNdh.

   g,n;e$*r pr AE g[p iqeY$;rilr a;r Ak$; ibexW d;n AE hl ey a;Ntj;Ritk \ sbR&;rtIY n;$*kemRr se^ Aedr s'ey;gSh;pn. es$; /u a;Ntj;Ritk k%n\ b; k;isk n;$* iteh*r ibSt;err idk eqek nY &;retr an*;n* p[edexr n;$*kl;r se^\ Ak$; p[g; ey;g wtir hl. bpI kerizl ibjY etulkerr m;r;i# n;$k x;Ntt; ek;$R c;lu a;ehr b;'l; p;Ntr t;r a;egE n;$*m p[it; simit kerez mu;r;=s. a;r bpI eymn putul e%l; dxc r;j; aYidp;s kerez etmnE rbINd[n;qek ssMm;en b;'l;r ex[ n;$*k;r iheseb me p[it; ideYez. n;NdIk;r kerez ipr;nede; ec%f eb[x$ \eY;r Ey;en;e;. iqeY$;r \Y;kRxp kerez j ep;l s;]R \ ej Am is'. per n;NdImu% kerez tleSt;Y. anub;d \ edxIkr, ineY tkR celez ikNtu t;et p[iY;$; bN/ hYin. ey &;ebE eh;k ibedexr &;l Ab' /[pdI n;$*kl;r ikzu ;d epeYez b;;il dxRk.

3

   inxex;a;ixet Em;ejRiNs \ piXcmb;'l;r n;n;ib/ ar;jkt; k;i$eY g[p iqeY$;err n;$k a;b;r inejek a;eSt a;eSt s'ht krb;r ec; kerez. Ar me/* Ak$; tpU,R `$n; `e$ez. hbIb tnbIr t;-r el;kn;$*kl; Ab' t_s^I g;n \ n;c in&Rr cr,d;s ec;r edi%eY serr bzrilr exeW klk;t;ek cmek ideYezn. AE smeYE klk;t; ede%ez s'gItp[/;n dui$ m;ri# n;$k eb[xe$r i]epin \epr; ablMben itn pYs;r p;l; \ ibjY eulkerr %;isr;m ek;et;Y;l. b;'l;edexr cm_k;r k;b*n;$k esilm a;l idenr murldIenr s;r;jIbn \ AE smY klk;t; ede%ez. fel el;kn;e$*r p[it b;'l; n;$*kmRIedr dOi peez Ab' bhrmpur p[iNtekr n;n; eh eqek a;r ker men;j ime]r iknu k;h;err q*;$;r1984 em;iht ce|;p;/*;eYr a;ilb;b; 1988 Ab' ibexW ker an* iqeY$;err m;/b m;lI kEn*; 1988 b;'l;et el;kn;e$*r b; el;kn;$* a;i^ekr Aki$ l prMpr; wtir ker. t;rE r;i/k;r bhn ker AE xt;Ir eg;;Y wtir heYez n;NdIk;err es;jnb;idY;r `;$ \ nI k-;q;r m;#. &eXbrIr gLp Et*;id el;k a;i^ekr a;r\ aenk n;$k pirebixt heCz. wsYd muSt;f; isr;ejr m;Y;m;l a;lk;epr a;i^ek n;$*;iYt kerezn bhrmpur erp;$R;r iqeY$;err p[dIp &|;c;yR. /[pdI ks;/n;Y b;;il m;r;i#edr met; d nY. tbu bpI icrn e`;eWr gItrt ai&nY ker Ak$; c*;el ineYizl . per iprIit prm ini/ n;em Ai$ jnip[Y hY. b;'l; iqeY$;er g;enr ixLpIr s'%*; tuln;mulk&;eb km tbu Aekb;er a&;b a;ez t; bl; y;Y n;.

4

   A z;; g[p iqeY$;r gt a;;E dxk t;r prI=; inrI=;r /;r;i$ bj;Y ere%ez. _pl d 19291993 ikNtu m;Rb;d \ sbRh;r;r ibpebr abSh;n eqek AkibNdu nenin edx \ pOiqbIr Eith;s sN/;n ker p[itb;d \ ibpebr ttl;x kereznb*^ p[itb;d Ipn;mY mh sbE t;-r n;$ekr ibWYbS heY \e# Ab' Eith;esr n;n; smY \ Sh;enr ibNdu SpxR ker q;ek. 1980et wtir hl d-;;\ piqkbr. t;rpr Aek Aek el%; b; p[ey;ijt hl xOl z;; 1983 mh;cIenr piqk a;jekr x;j;h;n 1985 aiGnxy*;1988 bi,ekr m;nd1988 wdink b;j;r pi]k; 1989
nIl s;d; l;l 1989 Akl; cel; 1989 l;l dugR1990 jnt;r a;ifm 1999 p[k;xk;l.

   bStutpe= b;'l; n;$ekr wdt*edr me/* _plE gt xt;Ir p[;Y exW pyRNt b;'l; g[p iqeY$;er entOt ideYezn Ab' g[p iqeY$;err ibebekr met; t-;r l=* inedRx kerezn.

   a, mue%;p;/*;Y ib&;s cbtRI aex;k mue%;p;/*;Y AE d;Ybt;r pq /erE AigeYezn. ae,r jg;q a;ixr bzrilr Aki$ ex[ p[ey;jn; yid\ t;r p[qm p[ey;jn; 1977A. ib&;s c;k&;; m/uet 1972 ey s;fl* emoilk p[eY;gicNt; \ a;tp[t*Y edi%eYizeln t; bj;Y ere%ezn t;-r ibsjRn 1984 mOtu* n; ht*; 1999 aut a;-/;r Et*;id p[ey;jn;Y. m;/b m;l kEn*;r kq; et; a;egE bl; heYez. aex;k mue%;p;/*;Y\ at*Nt pir,t \ suinpu, Ak pirc;lk heY e#ezn. t;-r ebl; aebl;r gLp 1986 eqek g[p iqeY$;err Ak ntun Ibn heYizl bl; y;Y.  Ar per t;-r edxIkOt n;$k eb; ep;k; du"smY m*;kebq t;-r ;tN] suiniXct kerez. a, AE smeY a;eSt a;eSt siY n;$*p[ey;jn; eqek ser egezn ectn;r entOt eze ideYezn t;-r suey;g* pu] sumn mue%;p;/*;Yek. sumenr kq;Y per a;siz a;mr;. a;rAkjn d;Yd pirc;lk nIlk esnPt. xuk sMp[d;eYr a;id duE sds* iejn beNd*;p;/*;Y \ nIlk ep[mceNd[r kfn geLpr
n;$*p ideY ibeSf;r, wtir kerizeln t;r per dujenE inj pq ebez ineYezn. nIlk per juilY;s isj;err exW s;t idn mh;m;s wtl 1986 muic b cm_k;ir,I 1999 s/b;r Ak;dxI Ab' muj;ffr a;hemedr jIbnI ablMben ENd[n;q beNd*;p;/*;eYr n;$ek inejr kOitt edi%eYezn. n;$*k;r edb;ixs mjumd;r aimt;=r n;$k ker ai&ent; iheseb inejek p[itit kern. edb;ixs per b;'l; iqeY$;err Akjn tpu,R n;$*k;r heY e#ezn Ab' sm;btRn r;;m;i$ Et*;id e%ey;g* keYki$ n;$k ile%ezn.

   p[s;d esnPt n;NdIk;err d;iYet a;ezn Ab' t-;r ,btI sh/imR,I ;tI el%;r se^ n;NdIk;err p[ey;jn; Ab' n;$*s';Nt a;r\ n;n; k;j krezn. t;r me/* p[/;n hl klk;t;Y sbR&;rtIY Aki$ n;e$*;_sebr a;ey;jn kr;. 1983 eqek n;NdIk;er j;tIY n;e$*;_sb clez Ab' t;r fel klk;t;r m;nuW &;rtIY k%n\ b; p;ikSt;n \ b;'l;edexr n;$*kl;r ag[git c;=uW kr;r suey;g p;eCzn. r s'g#nxi as;/;r, fel pUbR j;mR;n pirc;lk if[$s ebeni&$sek ideY klk;t;r dlilr mu%* ai&ent;
ai&en]Iedr Y' xu im] izeln n;m &Uimk;Y eb[xe$r g*;ilel\r jIbn p[ey;jn; t;-r Ak bOh_ kIitR. smeYr me/* rex; mn eqek m;nnIY ibc;rkmlI eb[xe$r &;el; m;nuW x;nu r;Yeco/urI Et*;id aenk ib%*;t
p[ey;jn;\ kerezn. n;NdIk;err egotm h;ld;err Akk ai&nYsmO em`n;db/ k;b* Aki$ Smr,IY p[ey;jn;.

   aist mue%;p;/*;Y izeln a;r Akjn pirc;lk em;iht ce|;p;/*eYr shey;igt;Y y;-r keYki$ p[ey;jn; ;tN] \ ixeLp skelr dOi a;kWR, kerizl. t;-r t%n ibekl 1992 Ab' jNmidn Ar SmOit A%n\ aMl;n. @il bsu %ubE ey;g*t;r se^ t;-r s'g#enr d;iYt bhn ker celezn.

   b;dl srk;r Ar me/* inejr Aki$ sMpU,R tN] /;r; wtir kerezn q;@R iqeY$;r n;em. itin b;-/; p[esinY;m m b*;pk a;el;r ibn*;s ibStOt s;js;\ pirh;r kern Ab' dxRkedr se^ Ak smtel enem Aes t;edr c;rp;ex biseY m;Z%;en n;$k kern k%n\ dxRkedr se^ s'l;ep yu heY n;$k kern. xherr a^nmer eceY g[;emr mu me n;$k kr;E t;-r ebix
p[;iqRt k;r, itin men kern g[;mp[/;n &;ret mUl pirbtRn$; a;s; drk;r es%;nk;r d;ir* ex;W, \ bn;r zibet. xherr m/*iedr iben;dn t;-r l=* nY. t;-r dl xt;I A%n\ p[ey;jn; krez t;-r n;$k t;-r\ siYt; kemin. AE smeYr me/* t;-r e%ey;g* n;$kwrq ڤed*;gpbR1982 a*;e[;eks 1982 %$m$ i' 1983 is-i 1984 jNm&Uim a;j 1985 k c $ t p 1997 Et*;id.

   d;Ybt;r AE ibiStOt zibr me/* s;Yekr em`n;d &|;c;yR smI=, Ar pj munsI inXcYE a;ezn. em`n;d Ak$u a;ebgp[/;n n;$k kern bel sm;el;ict hn ikNtu t;-r s;fl*ek n;$ekr &;lr jn*E k;ej l;g;n.

   AkCz ntun p[it&;r kq; Ab' n;$* pirc;ln;Y emeYedr kq; s'e=ep bel a;m;edr AE pirm; exW krb. A-r; heln Pn sN/;nIr ekoixk esn iyin esoim] ce|;p;/*;eYr se^ i$ki$ik n;$k ker cm_kOt kerizeln. n;$k t;-r re a;ez. per buedb bsur tpI \ tri^nI p[qm p;qR Ab' esilm a;l dIenr p[;c* ker itin a;m;edr njr e$enezn. n;NdIk;err egotm h;ld;r a;r Aki$ a;ib;r bl; y;Y p[s;edr inmR;,. ai&ent; iheseb t;-r Aki$ ibexW !' k%n\ k%n\ a;m;edr ibb[t ker ikNtu t;-r pirc;ln;r d=t; aibs'b;idt. t;-r pirc;ln;Y kl*;,I n;$*ccR; ekeNd[r Ab' n;NdIk;err keYki$ n;$k a;m;edr niNdt kerez. sumn mue%;p;/*;Y itSt;p;err bO;Nt ideY p[qm a;m;edr cmek edn per emife$; Et*;id n;$ek t;-r ai&nbt \ xi p[k;x kerezn. b[;t* bsu a;r Akjn xix;lI pirc;lk surij_ beNd*;p;/*;Y eymn a;r Akjn.

   pirc;ln;r e=e] emeYedr s;fl*\ l=* kr;r met;. klk;t;r ihiNd n;$ek W; g;^uil p[;Y
s;m{+Ir met; ibr;j kreznsMp[it itin j;m;Rin sfr ker Aeln. t;-r ڇiY; `r m; mh;e&;j el;kkq; ihMmtm;E eqek a;r ker b;m; frhd pr m;eN$; pyRNt prpr as;m;n* p[ey;jn; a;m;edr ibiSmt kerez. sIm; mue%;p;/*;Y \ es;h;g esn a;r dujn pirc;ilk; y;-r; b;'l; n;$ek tpU,R k;j ker celezn. n;$*;Yenr ainl edr n;m\ kret hY. A-edr bOiXck ip g;eYn b;`; b;eYn ebx m s;fl* epeYizl.

5

   tbu dxRkedr sms*; a;ez. a;egr met; dxRk a;r a;sez n; n;$ekj;inn; e$i;li&xn Ar jen* kt$; d;YI. tbu n;NdIk;err _sebr p;x;p;ix a;r\ Ak;i/k n;e$*;_sb heCzanIkAr _sb eymn. h;c em;b;Eelr kepR;er$ s'Sh; \i@Yn n;e$*;_sb krezn. piXcmb^ n;$* a;k;edim\ n;e$*;_sebr a;eY;jn ker Ab' n;$* pur;r edY. sh;Yt; a;sez Spnsrixp iheseb. e# a;sezn l ce|;p;/*;Y tIqRr cNd[ ENd[;ixs l;ihir met; n;$*k;r. t, \ p[itx[itm;n pirc;lkai&ent;r; k%n\ k%n\ isirY;el cel y;eCznes$; t;-edr n;$ekr a;kWR, b;;eCz n; n;$*ccR;r =it krezt;\ &;bn;r ibWY. zibi$ Akmu%I nY. ebx ji$l \ ibimx[. tbu p[s;d men;j ib&;s aex;ekr met; p[bI,r; a;ezn ekoixk egotm sumn surij_ b[;t*r; k;j krezn W; \ sIm;r; k;iNtr l=, ed%;eCzn n;. b;lur`;e$ p[bI, hirm;/b mue%;p;/*;Y  absr inel\ bhrmpur eg;br@;; h;\; Et*;id ael as'%* smqR n;$*dl wtir heYez p[esinY;m mum n;n; a;i^ekE t;r; ai&nY krez. AE el%k A%n\ a;x;b;dI ibexW ker t,edr kq; e&eb. 

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