ibc;rpit r;/;iben;d p;l Ab' j;p;n
pbIr ibk;x srk;r
j;p;n p[b;sI z;k;r el%k gebWk

       j;tIY e=e] s'r=, p[dxRn \ p[c;r n; q;k;r k;re, b;;il j;itr b kIitR eymn /es pet pet icrter ibluPt heY egez etmin kIitRm;n m;nuW\ k;elr /Usrt;Y imileY egezn n; hY iblIYm;n. b;'l;edex jNm &;ret beY;p[;Pt p[;n ix=;ibd ibc;rpit @" r;/;iben;d p;l etmin Akjn m;nuW. n;n; idk ideYE itin a;Ntj;Ritk %*;itsMp Ab' j;p;en nms* b*it. AE b*ir se^ j;p;enr sMpkRek i&i ker j;p;n &;rt b;'l;edx EeCz krel i]edxIY ix=; s;'Oitk Ab' aqRwnitk i&tek a;r\ &ibW*_mu%I kret p;rt belE men hY.

ibXbyupUbR b;;il \ j;p;inedr me/* ey a;/*;itk icNt;ectn;r ej;r;el; bN/n Sh;ipt heYizl es$; yuer pr em em =I,tr heY peizl. 2007 s;el klk;t;r sL$elek &;rtj;p;n s'Oit ekNd[r e;/n p[;cIn esE peq a;el; efelez men heCz. A%n yid piXcmbe^r srk;r \ jng,  AE xtbWRp[;cIn /;r;ek es[;et;ebg ker tulet sec hn t;hel duedexr t,
p[jNm l;&b;n heb in"seNdeh. a;r esE suey;g$; j;p;nE ker ideYez ey j;p;enr se^ b;;ilr a;/*;itk sMpekRr sUcn; heYizl inx xtekr exW idek b; ib'x xtekr et. a;r p[Sfui$t heYez j;p;en @" r;/;iben;d p;elr ;enr m/* ideY. ikN du&R;g* a;m;edr ey  esE a;el;ikt Eith;s b;;ilr s;men tuel /r; hYin.

/u r;/;iben;d p;lE nY emEij yueg 18681912 pUbRb^ eqek  Ak;i/k b;;il j;p;en Aes b*bs;s';Nt ai&+t; ajRn ker edex igeY klk;r%;n; Sh;pn Ab' j;p;nmn ibWYk g[Nh ile% ere% egezn kib rbINd[n;q #;kur j;p;en a;s;r aenk a;eg. eymn mNmqn;q e`;W suerxcNd[ beNd*;p;/*;Y hirp[&; t;ekd; p[mu%. mNmqn;q 1906 s;elr idek j;p;en Aesizeln Ab' p[yui ixe% edex igeY k;r%;n; Sh;pn kerizeln  bel j;n;eCzn ibix el%k gebWk sub[t kum;r d;s. mNmqn;eqr jNm yex;er.

ib'x xtekr p[;re 1902 s;el j;p;in pit a;c;yR \k;kur; etnixn igeYezn klk;t;Y "n;m/n* ebopit  irk;n  ikmur; b; ikmur; iniK c|g[;em p;il&;W; ix=;l;e&r jn* igeYezn 1907 s;el. an*idek ibpbI r;sibh;rI bsu 1915 s;el rbINd[n;q #;kur 1916 s;el ent;ij su&;WcNd[ bsu 1943 s;el r;/;iben;d p;l 1946 s;el 1973 s;el b^bN/u muijbr rhm;n j;p;en a&utpUbR a;iteqYt; s'b/Rn; ajRn kerizeln. a;r\ ebx ikzu ibix j;p;in Ab' b;;il a;s; y;\Y; kerezn &Y edexE. AE /;r; A%en; ibd*m;n ikN xix;lI p /;r, kret p;erin. AE s;bn;mY sMpkR$;r ek;en; mUl*;Yn kr;r ec;E kerin &Y aelr b;;ilr; ibgt a/Rxt;I /er.

Akq; anIk;yR ey scr;cr an*n* j;itr se^ j;p;enr sMpkR at$; g&Ir nY Akm;] ek;irY; \ cIn b*iterek. pUbR AixY; tq; dUrp[;ec*r al iheseb Aedr `int; ;&;ibk&;ebE q;k;r kq;. ikN j;p;n eqek bdUr di=, AixY;r &;rtbWR. tq;ip a;/uink yuegr p[;reE j;p;n &;rtbeWRr me/* ix=; s'Oitk/mRIY e=e]  s'ix b*iedr buibOik a;d;n p[d;n `e$. ibexW ker x j;p;n yu y;ek bl; heY q;ek xU,* ibXbyu ( Zero World War) t;et eXbt;^ j;itr ibe j;p;inedr ibjY ajRn &;rtbWR tq; b;'l; ael Amn g&Ir p[&;b ibSt;r kerizl ey &;rtIY ;/Int; a;eNd;len siY ibpbIr; j;p;nek l=* kerizeln t;-edr Akm;] shey;gI edx iheseb. eknn;  &;rtbWR t%n eXbt;^ bOi$x ktOk x;ist ex;iWt. a;r t;E eXbt;^edrek ibt;it kret j;p;enr s;h;y*E p[eY;jn izl. AE yu aenk sectn j;tIYt;eb;e/ dIPt b;;il t,ek u kerizl. t, bYes r;/;iben;d p;l 18861967 izeln etmin Akjn. b;'l;edexr kuiY; ejl;r &utpUbR nidY; p[t*Nt al t;r;inY; EinYn edoltpur pejl;r s;ilmpur g[;emr Ak int;Nt dird[ pirb;er jNm r;/;iben;d p;l ezelebl; eqekE p[c pirx[m \ em/;r bel m;nuW heYizeln. 1907 s;el klk;t; ep[ise@iNs kelj eqek gi,et ibA an;sR prI=;Y I,R hb;r perr bzr AkE p[it;n eqek AkE ibWeY AmA prI=;Y p[qm ex[,I l;& kern. em/;bI r;/;iben;d p;l jIbenr p[qm c;kiret inyu hn 1911 s;el mYmnis'h ejl;r ib%*;t a;nNdem;hn kelejr gi,t x;eS]r a/*;pk iheseb. A%;en q;k;k;lIn klk;t; ibXbibd*;lY eqek m;$;r ab l prI=;Y p[qm ex[,Iet p[qm h\Y;r egorb ajRn kern 1920 s;el. 1921 s;el kilk;t; Cca;d;let  a;EnjIbI iheseb ey;g edn. 1924 s;el kilk;t; ibXbibd*;lY eqek AlAli@ aqR;_ @r ab l i@g[I l;& kern mnus'iht;pUbR wbidk \ r wbidk yueg ihNdu a;EndxRn ibWeY sNd&R ile%. Akm;] itinE iyin itnitnb;r  klk;t; ibXbibd*;leYr dulR& e$eg;r l p[efsr Ar a;sen inbR;ict hn 19253048 s;el. t;-r a;eg y;-r; AE a;sen pib heYizeln t;-r; izeln s*;r a;et;W mue%;p;/*;Y s*;r d;s beNd*;p;/*;Y @" ibjnkum;r mue%;p;/*;Y Ab' h;&R;@ l uelr a/*;pk er;sek; p; (Roscoe Pound).

AE ibrl sMm;enr k;re, &;rt srk;r ktORk 192741 s;l pyRNt j;tIY a;Ykr dPterr a;En ped; iheseb d;iYtp[;Pt heYizeln @" p;l. 1941 s;el kilk;t; Cc a;d;letr ibc;rpit inbR;ict hn Ab' 1943 s;el absr ineY punr;Y \k;litet ifer y;n. ikN perr bzr a;b;r @;k pe kilk;t; ibXbibd*;leYr p;c;eyRr d;iyt g[he,r jn*. dUrp[;c* e$;ik\ a;Ntj;Ritk imil$;ir $[;Ebu*n;elr ibc;rpit iheseb ey;gd;enr pUebR 1946 s;l pyRNt AE ped a;sIn izeln. AE ibc;er itin ey 1235 pO;r r;Y ideYizeln t; a;j ibXbEith;s. a;NtjR;itk a;Eenr e=e] Ak apirsIm abd;n. AE buibOik \ x[ml r;eYr i&iet kmRbIr @" p;l t;-r p[it&; \ ,gt kmRk;er  mUl*;Yn –p 1952 eqek 1966 s;l pyRNt j;its'` a;Ntj;Ritk a;En s&;r ecY;rm*;n izeln. 1957 s;el j;tIY a/*;pk Ab' 1960 s;el &UiWt hn &;retr an*tm ex[ j;tIY sMm;n pd&UW, pdek. a;jIbn rbINd[& @" p;l jit izeln j;tIYt;b;dI r;jnIitr se^\. exW jIben x;iNtb;dI kmRI iheseb 1967 s;el klk;t;Y injgOeh mOt*ubr, kern. mOtu*r pUebR 1966 s;el sm[;$ iher;ihet; t;-ek r;e[r sebR;Cc sMm;nn; p[qm ex[,Ir suEeh;\ex;\ (Order of the Sacred Treasure) pdek &uiWt kern. 1997 s;el &;retr se^ j;p;enr kU$wnitk sMpekRr 50 bzr pUitRet ikeYet; xherr adUer Ak p;h;Sh ex;\Y;en; em;ir n;mk d*;en t;-r Aki$ SmOitflk Sh;pn kern j;p;in j;tIYt;b;dI entObONd. entOt edn ib%*;t ikeY;esr; ek;Mp;inr p[it;t; Ab' p[;n ecY;rm*;n @" En;em;ir k;ju\. p[;Y edx b;i,j* p[it;n AE p[keLp a;iqRk s;h;y* ker. e;/n ple= j;p;en Aesizeln @" p;elr pu] ibix a;EnjIbI p[x;Ntkum;r p;l 1926 sS]Ik. anup a;r Aki$ SmOitflk Sh;ipt heYez 2005 s;el e$;ik\r kud;nixt; xher abiSht &;rtIY dUt;b;s s'lGn ibtikRt EY;skuin ixeSt; miNdr p[;^en.

e%* ey dIYm;n xix;lI s;m[;j*b;dI j;p;enr dY `e$izl ibc;rpit r;/;iben;d p;elr mnen t, bYesE. men hY esE eqekE j;p;enr se^ inYitr bN/en b;-/; pe igeYizeln. t; n; hel a;Ntj;Ritk a;En ibexW+ n; h\Y; set\ ekn e$;ik\ s;mirk $[;Ebu*n;el 11 jn ibc;rpitr me/* Akjn &;rtIY p[itini/ heY a;sebn? ekn im]xi a;emirk;bOe$nend;rl*; t;-ek inbR;ict kreb &;rtj;p;n `int;r kq; j;n; se\? eknEb; iher;ixm;ekiNd[k ibXbx;iNtb;dI a;eNd;len jit hebn? eknEb; t;-r SmOitflk j;p;en p[itit heb ey%;en &;rt \ b;'l;edexr ek;q;\ a;j pyRNt Sh;ipt hY in.

Akb;r j;p;n srk;r t;-r Aki$ a;b= mUitR p;i#eYizl klk;t; ibXbibd*;leY Sh;pn kr;r jn* es$; em;ksu d;m `err is-ir tel Sh;n epeYizl p[x;Ntb;bur mue% AE kq; en ibXb;s hiCzl n; ede% Aki$ wdink E'erij pi]k; sbt id $;Ems ab EiY; %uel t_sMpikRt p[itebdn edi%eYezn a;m;ek 2006 s;el t;-r e@;b;r elenr inr;&r, b;s&ben. a;r\ Aki$ t;_pyRpU,R mNtb* kerizeln itin t%n eneh t;-edrek aenk j;ileYez sbRx;Nt ker ideYez. en Stit heYizl;m ikN ibSt;irt j;n;r jn* a;m;r smY h;et izl n;. a;im n; hE ek n; ek Akidn ab* st*ek el;ksMmue% eNm;ict kreb. enehr se^ ey @" p;elr sMpkR &;el; izl n; t;
p[m;i,t hY \lNd;j a;En ibx;rd p[efsr b;$R eril' Ar &;W* eqek y; p[x;Ntb;bur mue% ex;n;. itin eril'Ar ili%t Aki$
g[Nh a;m;ek ed%;n. a;En ibexW+ eril' $[;Ebu*n;elr a;eg im]xi a;emirk;r ejn;erl @gl;s m*;ka;qR;err anuer;e/ &;rt eqek Akjn a;Ntj;Ritk a;En ibexWe+r e%;-ej idI y;n Ab' enehek anuer;/ kern etmn k;ek pircY kireY idet t;et eneh ap;rgt; p[k;x kern. per eril' inejE anusN/;n ker a;EnjIbI r;/;iben;d p;elr e%;-j epeY t;-r se^ s;=;t ker t;-ekE inyu kern $[;Ebu*n;el. bOi$x srk;r t;-r ineY;eg anumit p[d;n ker. A$;E kI enehr WR;r k;r, heY e#izl ? t;r jb;b A%en; p;\Y; y;Y in. ikN 6070 Ar dxek dI`Ridn j;p;en bsb;sk;rI &;rtIY b;;il b*bs;YI btRm;en idISh ڤNmu Cz;s s;iht* s;miYkIr sMp;dk p[k;xk ibk;x ibXb;s t;-r j;p;n ai&+t; ineY ili%t ڤidt &;nur edx j;p;n g[eNh belezn e$;ik\ $[;Ebu*n;el ibc;rpit p;elr r;Y ineY eneh asN heYizeln. itin a;x; kerizeln a;emirk; tq; eXbt;^edr p[t*;x;r se^ iml ere% r;Y edebn. ikN ideYezn sMpU,R eL$;. AE ineY dI`Ridn t;-edr me/* tkRibtkR men;m;iln* celizl. eneh ik menp[;e, eXbt;^pNhI izeln? t-;r icNt; \ kmRk;e al`nIY bOi$x p[&;b izl bel et; aenekE men kern. 1964 s;el  t;-r mOtU*r pr Aki$ bOi$x pi]k; belizl Ar pr eqek Akjn &;rtIY EiNdr; g;N/I &;rt x;sn krebn. mNtb*i$ t;_pyRpU,R.  teb A$; i#k ey ibc;rpit p;l p[d r;eYr ikzu ikzu ibWY ineY A%en; ibtkR a;ez. t;-r r;Yek kitpY j;p;in buijIbI adlbdl ker yeqCz b*bh;r kerezn bel\ ai&ey;g reYez. etmin b ibtkR a;ez e$;ik\ imil$;ir $[;Ebu*n;elr a;eY;jnek i`erE. ibc;rpit @" p;l A$;ek $[;Ebu*n;lE men kern in. t;-r AE anu/;benr smqRnek m;gt ej;r;el; ker tulez s;Mp[itkk;el edx ibedex Nmu a;ibOt tpU,R a+;t tq* p;smUh. ibSt;irt j;n;r jn* a;m;r ili%t et;ej; ehedik " j;p;enr exW s;mur;E j;n; aj;n; itIY pbR d[b* btRm;nk;elr kitpY gebWekr dO! ibXb;s ey ibc;err icNt;&;bn; \ a;eY;jen 10 i$ ibr;$ &ul b; ib;iNt ikzu gebWk t_=,;_ Ab' prbtRIk;el tuel /erizeln. Ar me/* p[/;n Aki$ &ul heCz b*ir p[it a;e;x.  Aki$ mh;yu s'`$enr jn* Aki$ j;it d;YI q;ek. esE j;itr p[/;n pirc;lk Ak; ikzu is;Nt inet p;ern n; r;[ pirc;ln;Y inyu pirWdbgR z;;. j;p;enr e=e] a;emirk;r ibe yu e`;W,; b; ilPt h\Y;r is;Nt t_k;lIn p[/;nmN]I ejn;erl et;ej; ihedik Ak; ineYizeln bel suSp p[m;, p;\Y; y;Y in. t;-r se^ izl smg[  mN]I pirWd Ab' sb;r per r;e[r sbRmY =mt;r ai/k;rI ex;\Y; sm[;$ iher;ihet;. ikN e$;ik\ $[;Ebu*n;el sm[;$ek b;Eer ere% et;ej;ek p[/;n ker puer; mN]I pirWd Ab' kitpY buijIbIek a;s;im kr; heYizl. itni$ ex[,I kr; heYizl A ib is n;em. A hl x;iNt&^ ib hl yupr;/ is hl m;nbt;iber;/I. a;d;let /um;] A iciht apr;/Iedr ibc;r  kr; heYizl ib \ is iciht apr;/Iedr ibc;r anuit hYin apr;/I sbRem;$ 28 jn. 3 jn ibi& k;re, m;r; y;\Y;Y 25 jnek x;iSt p[d;n kr; heYizl eyoq r;eYr m;/*em. t;\ a;b;r tr apr;e/r jn* et;ej;sh 7 jenr f;-is b;ikr; y;bIbn k;r;de dit heYizeln. a;b;r ek ek tr apr;/I iheseb ibc;r eqek fsek egezn dp[;Pt k;r;bNdI iheseb k;r;g;r eqek d[t mui\ epeYezn. ikN ey ith;isk `$n;r jNm ideYizeln p[;n p[/;nmN]I ejn;erl et;ej; ihedik ibn;b;ek* f;-isr d;edx m;q; epet ineY aqR;_ sm[;$ek b;-iceY ideYizeln t;r nijr Eith;es %ubE ibrl. j;it \ r;[pirc;lekr p[it Amn a;nuget*r dO;Nt Akm;] et;ej; ihedikE edi%eY egezn. 60 bzr pr Eith;s a;j t;-r AE as;m;n* dO;Ntek Ik;r ker inet `uer d;-ieYez belE men hY s;Mp[itkk;el ibStr Pt tq*;idr &;;r eNmcenr fel. AE ibc;ri$ exW kretE a;;E bzr 3 em 194612 ne&Mbr 1948 smY elegizl im]xir. AE a;;E bzr e$;ik\ EeMpirY;l eh;e$elr ke= bes inrls&;eb a;NtjR;itk a;En j;p;in Eith;sibWYk g[Nh;id p;# \ gebW,; kerezn @" p;l. y; a;r Ak nijribhIn `$n;.

p[Xn heCz ey im]xi sm[;$ek p[k;ex* d;YI kret p;erin t;r Akm;] k;r,esE =mt; t;edr izl n;. t%nk;r pirep[i=et sm[;$ j;p;enr ek*r p[tIk tq; k;ims;m; b; sbRmY =mt;r ai/k;rI pib] edbt; iheseb sup[itit izeln. t;-ek a;d;let e$en a;n;r aqR heCz `umNt s;mur;Ejem a;n l;g;en;. j;p;inr; sb l& ker edb;r met; t%en; yeq xi/r izlyue eCz;Y pr;jY br, kr;r pr\. e%* ey a;,ibk eb;m;\ t;r; ;bn ker efelizeln ikN sm[;e$r inedRex t; b*bh;r eqek ibrt q;ekn k;r, iher;ixm; n;g;s;ikr pr a;r aehtuk m;nuW in/n sm[;$ ed%et c;nin. ikN im]xir duE p[/;n r;[ a;emirk; \ bOe$n j;p;enr AE men;&;bek a;edo ibebcn;Y n; Aen Aki$ sudurp[s;rI d;hr, Sh;pn kr;r jn*  e$;ik\ imil$;ir $[;Ebu*n;elr a;eY;jn kerizeln Ab' Ar jn* izl Amn Akjn m;nueWr y;ek shej f;-s;en; y;Yitin izeln yuk;lIn p[/;nmN]I sm[;$ anugt ejn;erl et;ej; ihedik. k;ejE ed%; y;eCz ey b*iibexW izl im]xir mUl l=*. mUl yu;pr;/I iheseb yid /r; hY t;hel aenkekE ibc;err a;\t;Y a;n; hYin rhs*jnk&;eb. eymn en;busuek ikis itin et;ej;r mN]Is&;Y b;i,j*mN]I izeln j;p;n ktROk cIen p[itit m;uku\ tq; m;ur;ej*r YnibWYk p[/;n kmRktR;\ izeln. t;-r ek;en; ibc;r hY in br' yuer pr itin dudub;r p[/;nmN]I heYizeln. @" p;elr `in bN/u izeln itin. p;elr r;Y itinE p[qm g[Nh;k;er p[k;x kerizeln j;p;in &;W;Y. Amin a;r\ aenekE p;r epeY egezn. em;;kq; et;ej; ihedikr pr izl im]xip[/;n a;emirk;r r;jer;W. k;r, A$; st* ey r;[IY is;eNtr p= heY itin b;/* heY h;\Y;EE IpSh m;ikRn eno`;-i$ p;lRh;bR;r ieY ideY a;emirk;r ibe p[x;Nt mh;s;grIY b; mh;AixY; yuer sUcn; kerizeln. b;/* heY bl; AE k;re, ey Amn&;eb j;p;nek a;emirk;sh eXbt;^ xi em em c;p p[eY;g ker edY;el e#ikeY /erizl ey aiStt bj;Y r;%;r jn* j;p;nek `uer d;-;et heYizl. r;e[r anumitemE
p[/;nmN]I esn;pit iheseb et;ej; yue`;W,;p] p;i#eYizeln i#kE  ikN rhs*jnk&;eb es$; Ak `N$; ibleMb m;ikRn ktORpe=r h;et epo-ezizl. Ar me/* enob;ihnI p[/;n EY;m;em;et; Ees;er;ku a;mn ker besn p;lRh;bR;r. fel `$n;em et;ej; ihedikekE a;emirk; d;YI ker p;lRh;bR;r a;menr jn*. yid\ A$; izl WyN] m;]. Ab' ibc;rpit r;/;iben;d p;l SptE buZet eperizeln ey a;emirk;E yt n;e$r . t;E 1941 s;elr 8 i@esMbr j;p;n a;emirk;ek a;m, krel ep[ise@N$ f[;iln i@l;en; je&eL$r pirkLpn; puer;puir b;Stb;iYt hY yue s'yu h\Y;r. k;r, a;emirk;r\ t%n yue jit n;hel dI`Ridenr l;g;t;r &Y;nk aqRwnitk s'k$ k;i$eY \#; sb izl n; bel gebWkedr ibXb;s. yu l;gelE ibpul pirm;, aS]xS]  %;d*p,* _p;idt heb k;ejr \ a;eYr a&;b heb n;. aqR;_ \Y;remixn c;lu heb A$;\ izl an*tm l=* ep[ise@N$ je&eL$r. t;E j;p;n y%n a;emirk;r b*bs;YI a'xId;r cIn a;m, ker Ab' im]edx bOi$exr pinebx &;rtek p[t*=&;eb shey;igt;r h;t AigeY edY `;be y;Y bOe$n a;r a;emirk; fel d[t pirkLpn; b;Stb;Yen t_pr heY \e#. a;emirk; j;p;nek c;p p[eY;g ker cIenr m;uirY; n;nik' n;nij' eqek wsn* p[t*;h;r kret. yid\ m;uirY; cIenr inj ek;en; j;Yg; izl n; ek;en;k;elE. Nmu Aki$ j;Yg;Y cIn; ek;irY;n r;ixY;n Ab' j;p;inr; dI`Rk;l /er bsb;s ker a;sizl. m;uirY;r mUl j;itE izl a;l;d; eg;Iy;-edr pircY Eith;es kuE' b'x n;em k;n h;n ek;en; eg;I nY.

p[kOtpe= m;uirY;r pr r;ixY; \ j;mR;inr a;g[;sI hSte=p izl b a;eg eqekE. %inj sMpedr jn* m;uirY; izl br;brE smO. ey k;re, a;emirk; bOe$n r;ixY; j;mR;n \ j;p;enr l=* izl m;uirY;. es%;en p[cur pirm;e, aqR ibineY;g kerizl j;p;n ge tuelizl &;rI ixLp k;r%;n; kOiW %;m;r a;/uink erlpq bNdr h;sp;t;l ix=; p[it;n Et*;id. y; eze idel j;p;nek n; e%eY mret htAE b;Stbt; ey a;emirk; j;nt n; t; nY. j;p;nek n;St;n;bud kr;r jn* a;emirk; cIn; j;tIYt;b;dI dl p[/;n icY;' k;E exkek (Chiang Kai shek) a;iqRk&;eb shey;igt;r h;t b;ieY ideYizl. anup r;ixY;\ smqRn ideYizl j;tIYt;b;dI dlek m;uirY; eqek j;p;nek _%;t kret. Eitme/* EeNd;isn;r im]xi&u \lNd;j pinebx EeNd;enixY; idek ag[sr h\Y;r k;re,  a;emirk; j;p;enr se^ j;l;in \ ip;i=k b;i,j* cui sb b;itl ker edY. r;[ sicb k;e@Rl h;l (Cordell Hull) ktORk 26111941 t;ire% ep[irt exW en;$ Ar &;W*E a;emirk;j;p;n yuer `N$; b;ijeY izl. \E idnE j;p;in enob;ihnI h;\Y;EE Ar p;lRh;bR;rSh m;ikRn eno`;-i$r idek r\Y;n; heY y;Y. 8 i@esMbr eno`;-i$ a;m, ker yuer sUcn; ker.

AE pyRNt Eith;s ejen ibc;rpit p;l y; anu&b kern es$; AE ey a;emirk; j;p;enr m;nibk idk$; ek;en;idnE ibebcn; kerin. j;p;n s;m[;j*b;dI ht n; a;emirk;E t;ek s;m[;j*b;dI kerez t;r p[eY;jen. teb an*idek icNt; krel a;emirk;r AE &uelr k;re, &;rtbWRsh AixY;r edxel; bOi$x f[;Ns \ end;rl*;s Ar h;tz;; heYez aqR;_ x x bzr pr AixY; mh;edx eXbt;^
s;m[;j*b;edr krtl eqek muil;& ker j;p;enr ;enr k;re,E. A$;\ itin &;el; kerE j;netn.  ey k;re, itin j;p;en mOtu*br, kret\ i/; p[k;x kernin AE k;re, ey itin j;p;inedr a;itkxi$;ek &;el;ebesizeln. a;r Aki$ k;re, kOt+ izeln a;jIbn ey ;/In m;tO&uimr ey Pn ede%izeln t,k;el t; pUr, kerizl j;p;nE. &;rt\ a;jek t; akuice Ik;r krez. Ar sbeceY b p[m;, 15 a;g b; p[j;tN] idbs j;p;en &;rtIY dUt;b;s p;ln ker n; eknn; AE iden j;p;n im]xi p[/;n a;emirk;r k;ez a;tsmpR, kerizl aqR;_ pr;jY br, kerizl. j;p;enr jn* A$; du"e%r idn. puer;en; \ prIi=t bN/u heY &;rt a;nNd ker ik&;eb ? aenek men kern r;jp[;s;edr p;ex &;rtIY dUt;b;esr a&;bnIY mUl*b;n j;Yg;i$ &;rt epeYez ibc;rpit r;/;iben;d p;elr p[it j;p;enr kOt+t;r ph;r iheseb ibn;mUel*. ibc;rpit p;l tq;kiqt e$;ik\ $[;Ebu*n;lek aIk;r Ab' ibijetr ibjY bel ph;s kerezn fel ai&yu yu;pr;/I 28 jn t;-r dOiet b; ibc;er ined;RW  ibebict heYizeln. Ar sudUr p[s;rI fl ey$; heYez es$; hl j;p;in n*;xn;il$edr  Skk itin punr;Y a;d[ j;tIYt;eb;e/ is kerezn punbR;r yuib/St abSh; eqek e# d;-;et apirsIm anuep[r,; \ s;hs juigeYezn ytb;r j;p;n Aesezn mOtu* pyRNt. t;-r i&mt;blMbI r;Yi$ b*;pk&;eb ibXbb*;pI zieY p;et $[;Ebu*n;elr a;eY;jk ejn;erl @gl;s m*;k a;qR;r pyRNt
ek-ep e#izeln a;emirk;Y ifer igeY k'eg[esr s&;Y e$;ik\ $[;Ebu*n;l izl &ul bel Ik;r kret b;/* heYizeln. bl; eyet p;er ey j;p;nek r=;r jn*E eyn ibc;rpit p;elr a;ib&R;b `e$izl. ey k;re, b sectn j;p;in ibXb;s kern ey ibc;rpit r;/;iben;d p;l j;p;inedr Een;ic en; \nijn b; j;p;inedr jIbnd;t;.

e$;ik\ imil$;ir $[;Ebu*n;l izl ibc;rpit r;/;iben;d p;elr jIben Aki$ ibr;$ suey;g. AE suey;g itin puer;m;];Y s*bh;r kerizeln eymn 
Ak j;p;nek s;m[;j*b;dI bel im]xi bOi$x \lNd;j fr;sI eSpEn ptURgIj ey izl t; muke ibXbb;sIek j;ineY ideYezn.
duE ey k;re, AixY;Y g,ht*;r jn* j;p;nek n;_isr se^ tuln; kerez im]xi AkE k;re, iher;ixm;  n;g;s;iket a;,ibk eb;m; ine=p ker l= l= inr;pr;/ m;nuWek ht*; kr;r jn* a;emirk;r\ ibc;r d;bI kerezn itin.
itn yu;pr;/Iedr ibc;r kr;r jn*  ey%;en ek;en; a;NtjR;itk a;En izl n; im]xi inejr; a;En wtir ker j;p;in yu;pr;/Iedr ibc;r kerez t; izl sMpU,R awb/ Ab' p[hsn bel mNtb* kerezn.  t;-r AE suiciNtt r;eYr k;re,E yu;pr;/Iedr jn* a;NtjR;itk a;En p[,Yen j;its'` per ed*;g g[h, kerizl. a;j esE a;EnE a;Ntj;Ritk yu;pr;/ a;Eenr mUl i&i.
c;r j;p;n b;'l; &;retr i]m;i]k sMpekRr mUl i&t$;ek ntun ker xix;lI Ab' sudurp[s;rI kerizeln itin. y;r fl;flE klk;t;Y sd* p[itit &;rtj;p;n s'Oit ekNd[y;r j;-kjmkpU,R e;/n kerezn 2007 s;el t_k;lIn j;p;nI p[/;nmN]I ikix en;busuekr n;it. AE sfr izl t;-r Aki$ ith;isk sfribc;rpit p;elr pu] p[x;Nt p;elr se^ ent;ijr a;tIY; kO; bsur se^ s;=;_ kern. idIr s'sed aku ice kOt+t; p[k;x kern e$;ik\ $[;Ebu*n;el ibc;rpit p;elr p[d ith;isk r;eYr jn*.

ex;n; y;eCz ikzuidn pUebR ibc;rpit @" p;elr kitpY j;p;in & kuiY; sfr kerezn t;-r jNmSh;en Aki$ SmOitflk inmR;enr pirkLpn;Y. ibc;rpit p;l Ab' t;-r `in bN/u ibix ix=;ibd mO_ixLpI Ab' myR;d;sMp s'Sh; ehEeb;nx; p;bilx;r Ar p[it;t; ixem;n;k; EY;subuer;dujenr Akin ixW* el%k gebWk sMp[it p[Y;t t;n;k; m;s;a;ik t;-edr mUl*b;n SmOit r=;eqR 1974 s;el ixem;n;k; p;l emem;irY;l f;exn j;du`r p[it;r ed*;g inel per ixem;n;k; f;exn esi$ Sh;pn ker k;n;g;\Y; ejl;r nYn;i&r;m h;ek;en; xherr Ak p;h;e.

p[Xn heCz j;p;inr;E /u kreb a;mr; kI ikzuE kret p;irn; AE mh;n b;;il b*ir SmOitr sMn;n;eqR piXcmbe^ ik'b; b;'l;edex?
j;p;n p[b;sI el%k gebWk

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