ibd*;s;gr kYjn
x[I b;,Ikum;r W^I

   AkXcNd[ tem;hiSt n c gw,rip". cNd[ Ak;E smSt aN/k;r dur kern t;rk;smir t; du"s;/*. esE cNd[ yid Y' xr hn t;hel j;itr a+;nt;r aN/k;r sm;ejr kus';r \ ;qRprt;r inmRm yN]n;r e`;r tims[; \ smg[ j;itr yug;Ntb*;pI j;e@;r msIilPt l;n;r muel;_p;$n ker smg[ edxek ibexW &;eb ihNdu n;rIek t;r l p[&;Y a;el;ikt krebn AEi$ n;emr s;qRkt;.
   kd;c;r msIilPt \ kus';er a;k inmit AE edx xu/u ey itimer esE itimer nY a;c;er b*bh;er &;W;Y pirCzed piXcemr anukre, a;j ik _k$ p[itey;igt;. a;mr; kq; bil b'r;ijet a;r pir m;ikRn;il m;ikRn
+b;^;lI h;-sj;ru ep;W;k. iki_ ab;Ntr hel\ xunet p;E ibeYr smY b^ yubkedr /uit pireY idet hY. ibd*;s;gr mx;E a;m;edr aN/k;r eqek a;el;Y a;nb;r jn* mn p[;, sbE in"exW d;n ker egezn t;E a;j a;mr; pU,R a;el;ikt ibx n;girk. sus&* b^ sNt;nr; a;idm a;if[k;r julu n; huluedr  met; /unuic nOt* ker edbIr a;r;/n; kir.
   #;kurd;s \ &gbtIr b;lk pu] sudur bIris'h pI eqek eh-e$E klk;t; a;setn. peqr x[m k;Nt kerin br' ed%b;r j;nb;r \ men r;%;r xir t%nE ibk;x. r;St;r /;er g*;esr a;el;ek p;xun; kerezn. b;b;r \ ez;$ &;Eedr jn* r;-/b;r k;j\ izl AE ikex;err. Asb bO;Nt sb;r j;n;. n bzerr b;lk s'Ot kelej &itR heln 1829 %[I;er 1l; jun. jNm 12E a;ixn m^lb;r 1820 %[I;e.
   g^;/r tkRb;gIexr k;ez b*;kr, jYeg;p;l tkR;l;err k;ez s;iht* ep[mcNd[ tkRb;gIexr k;ez al;r xucNd[ ibd*;b;cSpitr k;ez ebd;Nt r;mcNd[ ibd*;b;gIexr k;ez SmOit inm;E cNd[ ixer;min \ jYn;r;Yn tkR p;nenr ink$ n*;Y \ s;'%* x;eS]r p;# g[h, kern. ey yueg tIqR x;S]I Et*;id p;i/r p[cln  hYin. a/*;pk mx;Er; z;e]r b*u_pi +;enr g&Irt; \ ibSt;r ibebcn; ker ibd*;b;gIx ik ibd*; b;cSpit ibd*;rt ik ibd*;l;r p;i/ idetn. tI= em/; apUbR a/*;bs;Y k;iNtk in;\ ibd*;r b*;iPt ibebcn; ker t;-ek ibd*;s;gr p;i/et &UiWt kreln. AE p[qm ibd*;s;gr. ix=; l;e& \ d;en s;gr kru,;Y mh;s;gr a;r n;rI kl*;e, atl ap;r anNt \ atulnIY.
   ibd*;s;gr e% krel sb;E xrcNd[ek eb;eZ. t;-r jIbenr skl idkE b a;el;ict \ pi#t. t;-r jIbnI AE p[beN/r ibWY nY. t;E keYki$ ibiCz k;ihnI b,Rn; ker apr s;gr dxRn krb.
   ibd*;s;gr belizeln ib/b; ibb;h p[btRn t;-r jIbenr sbRp[/;n s_kmR. itin men kretn ib/b; hEelE Iel;ekr xrIr p;W;, hEY; y;Y n;. l=* krb;r ibWY mn nY xrIr kq;r pr gurut ideYezn. ak;l ib/b;edr i eyoben xrIr /mR suSh peq clb;r suey;g n; epel ;&;ibk &;ebE ibpqg;mI hb;r yeq s;bn;. jIben AE k;j kret t;-ek bhu x[m bhub*Y \ ibexW l;n; sh* kret heYez. ib/b; ibb;ehr br kenr; ibeYr smY aqR ineYez per imq*; k;ihnI ef-ed t;r; b belez br t;ieY ideYez br n;ilx kerez s;m;ijk at*;c;err kq; b;rb;r bn; ker aenk $;k; ineYez Ab' , ker\ itin t;edr s;h;y* kerezn. AE bit &GnhdY bO inejr s's;er\ su% p;nin.
   jeNmr smY ipt;mh belizelna;j t;-edr Aki$ A-e b;zur heYez. esE p;irb;irk rs+;n ere% egeznt;-r ibi& rcn;Y. ڤpyu &;Eep;s* AE zdn;em sm;el;cn;r tIb[ kx;`;et &;imr mue%;x %uel ideYezn. jjRirt pietr &;Eep;s* x +;enr a&;ebr pircYAE mNteb*r er b*;%*; ideYezn&;"
+ p + as*= &;Eep;s*. nbIp pit sm;j Akjn Sm;tR pitek nbIp cNd[ \ an*tm Sm;tR pitek ndIY;r c;-d p;i/et &UiWt kerizeln. ibd*;s;gr ile%ezn Ak a;k;ex Ak se^ duE c;-d ed%; y;Y n;. atAb Ak Akjnek a/R cNd[ idY; ibd;Y kr; hk.
   b;^;l; ged*r jnk a;m;edr b,RpicY kireY ideY eqem y;nin jIbx;Y b,RpircY 1m &;egr 152 i$ \ 2Y &;egr 140 i$ s'r, kerezn. pU,muRd[n nY s';r kerezn ix=;Y inebidt p[;e,r adm* p[Y;s aibx;s* akLpnIY.
   yid\ t;r aenkguil a;r &uimet sul& nY A%n ekbl m;] ib[i$x imijY;m l;Eeb[iret mUl g[Nhguil p;\Y; y;Y.
   AE ep;;r edex kq; A%;en exW nY. ibd*;s;gerr mOtu*r aLp per e,r d;eY t;-r amUl* g[Nh;g;r nIl;m heY y;Y. a;r ebh;t heY y;Y t;-r b;du b;g;enr bst b;i. g[Nh;g;ri$r a'x ibexW exW pyRNt b^IY s;iht* pirWed Sh;n epeYez. t;r btRm;n abSh;\  %ub gebRr ibWY nY. t;r b;Ir sMmue% b;g;ni$r n;m hWIekx p;kR.
   ibd*;s;gr mx;Er ECz;p]
will) 1875 s;el 31 ex em niqb hY a;r t;-r mOtu* hY 1891 s;elr 29ex jul;E. mOtu*r 16 bzr a;eg rict ECz;pe]r 25 /;r;Y ii%ta;m;r pu] bilY; pirict x[Iyu n;r;Y, beNd*;p;/*;Y y;rprn;E yeqCzc;rI \ kupqg;mI Ajn* \ an* an* gurutr k;r,bxt" a;im t;-h;r s's[b \ sMpkR pirt*;g kirY;izEt*;id h;Y xr.

                                 jIb;nNd ibd*;s;gr
   ibd*;s;gr mh;xeYr pr iyin smi/k pirict t;-r n;m jIb;nNd ibd*;s;gr. ipt; t;r;n;q tkR b;cSpit \ m;t; aiMbk; edbI. jNm k;ln; b/Rm;n ejl; 1844 s;elr 11E Aip[l bOhSpitb;r wc]s';iNt. k;ln; pyRNt eh-e$ igeY xrcNd[ t;r;n;q &|;c;yRek s'Ot kelej b*;kr, a/*;pekr pd g[he, anuer;/ kern Ab' ped b;cSpit inyu hn. jIb;nNd s'Ot kelejE k;b* b*;kr, SmOit n*;Y s;'%* mIm;'s; ebd;Nt ej*;itW Et*;id bhu x;eS]r p;# g[h, kern \ 1870 s;el 26 bzr bYes ibd*;s;gr p;i/ l;& kern.
   jIb;nNd b;^l;r b;Eer bhu Sh;en Ccped ineY;egr p[St;b aIk;r kern. l;eh;r \ileYN$;l kelejr a/*e=r pd jYpuerr mh;r;j; k;XmIerr mh;r;j; ik enp;l;/Ix t_k;lIn shs[ mud[;Y t;-ek pyu ped ineY;egr p[St;b edn. sb pd p[t*;%*;n ker itin inj gOeh ctuSp;#I Sh;pn ker bhu b_sr ibd*;d;n ker egezn. z;]edr an*tm izeln mh;meh;p;/*;Y hird;s is;Ntb;gIx.
   p[cilt \ bhu duSp[;p* s'Ot \ b;^l; g[Nh mud[, \ p[k;xn 226 jIb;nNd ibd*;s;gerr aibSmr,IY kIitR. 1923 %[I;e klk;t;Y t;-r mOtu* hY.
   ipt; t;r;n;q ib/b; iubb;h p[St;b p[qem smqRn krel\ per Ar iber;i/t; ker puStk rcn; \ ibtr, kern. b*^ pirh;es l p[qm ibd*;s;gr itIY ibd*;s;gr sMbeN/ ile%ezn%ur t;r;n;q AE smY klm ker r;%; &;l k;r, a;-i$et eyi$ heYez esi$ $k \ ep;k;e%ek;. esk;elr b;d;nub;edr s;=*.

                               nIlkml ibd*;s;gr
rpur ejl;r nl@;^; g[;em k;lIem;hn l;ihI \ k;xIxrI edbIr pu] nIl kml b;' 1235 s;el jNmg[h, kern. Sh;nIY a/*;pkedr ink$ k;b* b*;kr, SmOit p[&Oit x;eS] ibexW p;rdixRt; ajRn ker ibd*;s;gr p;i/ l;& kern. jIb;neNdr penr b_sr pUbRbtRI izeln nIlkml. klk;t;r se^ ibexW ek;n ey;g;ey;g izl ikn; j;n; y;Y in. r^puer ipt;r n;m;it aqb; p[itit k;lIm;t;r n;imt k;lI/;em ctuSp;#I Sh;pen \ a/*;pn;Y a;tineY;g kern. bhu jnihtkr p[it;enr se^ t;-r ibexW ey;g izl. r^puerE t;-r jIbn;bs;n hY.
g[Nh" k;l;cRn ciNd[k; kOiWtt xi&i x[Ix[I srtI pUj;pit edbedbIr p[it; lhrIamuid[t y;]; pit amuid[t

                                p[;,kO ibd*;s;gr
   jNm kilk;t;r aduer hirn;i& g;em. ipt; r;m/n ixer;min. 1843 s;l eqek s'Ot kelej b*;kre,r a/*;pk izeln. sm;c;r ciNd[k; n;mk s'b;dpe]r ikzuidn sMp;dk izeln. mOtu* 1855 %[I;e 7E em. g[Nh" kulrhs* x[Ix[IapU,R; xtkm /mRs&; ibl;s x[Ix[I ixbxtk eSt;].

                                 r;jIbel;cn ibd*;s;gr
   g[;emr n;m nin=Ir ejl; firdpur. ipt; kOk;Nt &|;c;yR \ m;t; ymun; edbI. jNm \ mOtu* AkE g[;em. ey ful benr me/* sb;r aeg;cer ef;e$ \ Zer pe t;r sub;s sOiktR; ib/;t;E ekbl g[h, kern.  el;k;lY b; s'b;dp] kN$ikt a;/uink sm;ejr s'SpexR n; Ael ktful A&;eb h;ireY y;Y ek t;r e%;-j r;e%.
   g[;em kl;p b*;kr, \ SmOit \ imiql;Y ej*;itWx;eS] supit ibd*;s;gr p;i/ l;& kern. yex;r ejl;r n;El jimd;r gOeh ;r pit pd l;& kern \ bhu b_sr ibi& x;eS]r +;n ibtr, ker 96 bzr bYes s;/en;ict/;em p[Y;, kern.

                        xixex%r k;b* b*;kr, pur;,tIqR ibd*;s;gr
   mh;meh;p;/*;Y hird;s is;Nt b;gIx &;rt;c;yR \ srl;suNdrI edbIr ej pu] xixex%r ipt;r pUbRinb;s firdpur ejl;r ib%*;t ek;$;ilp;;Y jNmg[h,  \ ipt;r ink$ bx;eS]r p;# g[h, kern. g[;emr uel p[ebixk; prI=;Y InR hn. b;GmI \ supit xix&UW, 1960 s;el ibd*;s;gr p;i/et &UiWt hn. ibi& uel s'Ot ix=;ek k;yR ker EN$;ilr ekrI ul hEet absr g[hn kern. ul ix=kt;r abser is;Nt ibd*;leYr p[/;n a/*;pk izeln. mOtu* 1982 s;elr efb[uY;rI.

                      hirhr ibd*;s;gr k;b*b*;kr, n*;Y ebd;NttIqR
   ndIY; ejl;r nk;ixp;; q;n;r b;ihrg;izet jNm 1276 b^;e. ipt; ib%*;t pit m/usudn tkRp;nn. ipt;r ink$ b*;kr, \ SmOit a/*Yn \ per ndIep purueW;m ptIeqRr ink$ b*;kr, \ k;eb*r p;i/ l;& kern. pit sm;j t;-h;ek ibd*;s;gr p;i/ p[d;n kern. k;xIet r;%;ld;s ibd*;b;gIx mh;xeYr ctuSp;i#et zY b_sr n*;Yx;S] \ ebd;Nt a/*Yn \ ssMM;en p;i/ prI=;Y I,R hn. !;k;r &;\Y;l r;j  remNd[n;r;Ye,r a;g[eh !;k;r s;rt sm;j ctuSp;#Ir p[/;n a/*;pk inyu hn \ bhu b_sr a/*;pn; kern. per a;Ndulr;ejr a;mN]e, m;%mkum;rI ctuSp;#Iet ikzuk;l a/*;pn; kern. per ipt;r p[itit m/usudn ctuSp;#Iet a/*;pn;r smY AE pietr jIbn;bs;n hY.
   E-h;r jIbenr Aki$ k;ihnI ait amUl* \ skelr ix=,IY. z;]edr a& &;W;Y a;l;p xuinY; esidn Sh;n t*;g kireln. pridn g^;Sn;enr peq Aki$ x;iYt bOW edi%Y; krej;e bilelnbOW pq idn a;im g^;Sn;en y;Eb. bOW sirl n; edi%Y; k,R SpxR kirY;  bileln mh;xY ik xuinet p;Eetezn n;. s^I z;]r; k;r, j;inet c;ihel belizeln ijh; b a&*;esr d;s bOWek tuE et;k;ir kirel m;nuWek \ bilY; efilet p;er. a;pin a;cir /mR per ix%;EebAE ix=;r p[kO d;hr,. 1334 b;^l; sen g[;em t;-h;r mOtu* hY.

                              hr;nNd ibd*;s;gr
    24 prg,;r mijlpur g[;em 1827 s;el jNm. ipt; r;mkum;r &|;c;yR \ ipt;mh r;mjY tkR;l;r pu] a;c;yR ixbn;q x;S]I.
   10 b_sr bYes s'Ot kelejr z;] ihs;eb ey;gd;n \ ibd*;s;gr p;i/ sh kelj t*;g. ikzuidn jjpit per g[;em ctuSp;#I Sh;pn \ ibd*;d;n. bhu jnihtkr k;eyR ilPt izeln. $;n kimi$r s&;pit izeln dI`Rk;l. t;-h;r p;iet*r p[isi bhu ibStOt izl. t;-r; d;i=,;t* wbidk b[;, izeln. t;-h;r pUebR  t;-h;edr b'ex ekh srk;rI c;kir kernin. aLpk;l hel\ jjpietr srk;rI c;krI g[he, Sh;nIY b[,r; t;-ek &;l ec;e% ed%etn n;. nel;p;%*;n t;-h;r rict g[Nh. b;iLmkI r;m;Ye,r anub;d kern. ibd*;s;gr mh;xeYr se^ t;-r ibl=, s;b izl. 1912 s;el g[;em t;-h;r mOtu* hY. mOtu*r pUebR ikzuidn k;xIb;s kern.

   ibd*;s;gr z;; keYkjn ibd*,Rb\ izeln. yq; ixbcNd[ ibd*;,Rb r;ml;l ibd*;,Rb p[&Oit. t;-edr kq; a;r Akidn.

   AE p[bN/ rcn;Y gRIY hird;s is;Nt b;gIx mh;xeYr suey;g* pu] gRIY a/*;pk ehmcNd[ &|;c;eYRr duSp[;p* g[Nh b^IY s'Ot a/*;pk jIbnI 1m % hEet bhu tq* s'gOhIt. t;-h;r pu] x[Iyu igirxceNd[r shdYt;Y gNhi$ ed%b;r suey;g hY. t;-h;edr , Ik;r kir.

pu,Xc" p[bN/i$ keYk bzr a;eg el%;. esE smY emidnIpur xhr eqek ibd*;s;gr n;m;it ibxibd*;leY s'Ot p;e#r ek;n b*bSh; A%n a;ez ikn; j;inn;.

esojen* " k;rukOt x;rdIY; s'%*; 2008

sUicp]
p[s^ " g;jn g;n ibt;n purk;YSh  esojen* " Es; x;rd s'%*; 2008

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