aeloikk Ak yuegr n;m ex;\Y;
pbIr ibk;x srk;r

aitiq gebWk irs;cR esN$;r fr m@;,R a*; kne$eMp;r;ir S$;i@j
t;kuex;ku ibXbibd*;lY j;p;n

 

    j;p;enr a;/uink Eith;es ex;\Y; yug 192689 Aki$ aibSmr,IY Ab' t;_pyRpU,R smY. sm;j s'Oit aqRnIit Ab' r;jnIit e=e] AE yug ey Eith;s \ d;hr, sOi kerez t; Aed; yuegr 16031868. egnr;k ijd;Eek Smr, kireY edY. y%n r;e[r sbRe=e] itr ibPlb `e$izl. Amn `$n; AixY; mh;edex k%en; pirli=t et; hYin. y; j;p;en dub;r `e$ez. ex;\Y; yug prbtRIk;el sudur p[s;rI p[&;b ibSt;r kerez di=, pUbR AixY;Y. A%en; j;p;n a;m;edr ec;e% Ak sit*E ibSmYkr edx a;/*;itk Ab' aqRwnitk idk eqek. k;r, AE yuegE j;p;enr m;nuW nrk egRr ;d g[h, kret eperezn y; a;r an* ek;n yueg `e$in.

    itIY mh;yue sMpU,R&;eb /'sp[;Pt j;p;n aimt bel z;E&Sm eqek rt;k;er Zel;mel; ker e# d-;ieYez yu prbtRI m;] 30 bzerr me/*. y;ek ibexr g,m;/*m aeloikk bel ai&iht kerez. ibexW ker mh;yuer ibx;l =Y=it e#el dx bzerr me/*E a;/uink p[yuir kl;ekoxlek yq;yq&;eb b*bh;err m/* ideY ܳtgitsMp aqRwnitk smOir peq clet xuru ker y; AixY;r a;r ek;n edexr e=e]E l= kr; y;Y n;. ey k;re, j;p;enr ex;\Y; yuegr AE s;fl*ek a;j anusr, krez p[iti$ AixY;r r;[. pUbR AixY;sh ixeLp;t edx j;p;enr Yn icNt; \ pitek anusr, ker itni$ r;[ a;j ixeLp;itr crm ix%er epo-ez egezAr; hl di=, ek;irY; is^;pur m;leYixY;. AE /;r;Y t;E\Y;n\ Aki$ l d;hr,. dIYm;n &;rt\ esidek clet xuru kerez.

   Aed; yuegr exW idek 165354 y%n a;emirk;r yuj;h;ejr n;ibk kem;@t m*;qu eprI j;p;n s;gerr ڤr;g; tIer tIer k;el; j;h;j e&;eln t%nk;r j;p;in x;sk s;mur;Er; el;h;r j;h;j jel &;sez ede% ibiSmt heYizeln. el;h;r j;h;j jel &;es ik &;eb. t%nk;r j;p;in j;h;j izl k; inimRt. AE `$n;r keYk bzerr me/* j;p;inr; el;h;r j;h;j wtir kret s=m heYizeln t%n emEij yug 18681912 xuru heY egez. keYkx bzerr p[;cIn xix;lI x;skex[,I s;mur;Eedr h;t eqek
r;[IY =mt; cel egez sm[;e$r h;et. sm[;$ emEijr n;em AE yuegr n;mkr, hY emEij yug. AE yueg j;p;en Ak mh;ibPlebr sucn; hY a;emirk; \ eY;er;pIY ix=; s'Ouit r;jnIit ixLpkl; f*;xn Sh;pt* aqRnIit b;i,j* yN] \ p[yui a;md;in Ab' b;Stb;Yenr m;/*em. j;p;n ܳt yN]s&*t;r idek Zu-ek pe. y;r cu;Nt _kWR `e$ ex;\Y; yueg Ak;i/k inj ;bn Ab' a;/uink p[yui Yenr m/* ideY. 1655 s;lek y;r sUcn; bzr /r; eyet p;er. itIY ibxyuer sm;iPt bzr 1945 eqek 1955 s;lAE Ak dxekr me/* ibStr =Y=it Ab' mb/Rm;n s;m;ijk r;jwnitk aiShrt; k;i$eY #;r se^ se^ ܳt aqRwnitk itr peq j;p;n inejek Sh;penr Ak ann* d;hr, sOi ker. AE Yenr epzen k;j kerez k;irgir ixLp wnpu,* Ab' pey;igt;r e=e] b;Stb;nug icNt;dxRn. t;rE wbPlibk sUcn; `e$ 1955 s;el et;ixb; e$;ikeY; ixb;r; ednik k;buixik k;Ex; wbd*uitk p,* p[Stk;rI p[it;enr m;/*em.

    xu/u t;E nY Eitme/* m;E eh;m m;E k;r bel Ak$; buil skelr mue% mue% c;lu heY egez. #ez ibx;l ibx;l suCc m*;nsn a*;p;$RemN$ aifs b;s&bn. aibx;s* hel\ st* puer; dem j;p;n enem peez em;$r g;ir _p;den. W;e$r dxek j;p;en edxIY em;$r g;i _p;denr s'%*; 760000 z;ieY y;Y. prbtRI k;el AE s'%*; 70 gu, ebe sr dxek 5300000 s'%*;Y It hY.mUlt a;&*NtrI, Ab' a;Ntj;Ritk b;j;rek l=* ker AE g;i p[St kr; hel\ ai/k;'x g;iE m;ikRn yur;e[r b;j;er rPt;nI ker j;p;n. AE smY eqek b;et q;ek a;emirk;r se^ b;i,j* wbWm*. a;XceyRr ibWY heCz a;ixr dxek _p;idt edxIY em;$r g;ir s'%*; izl 11000000 i$. a;r A$; heYez gt dxekr eceY s;/;r, m;nueWr Yxi =mt; keYk gu, bOi Ab' b*;'k eqek , g[he,r pNh; shj heY y;\Y;r k;re,.

    ex;\Y; yuegr a;r\ Aki$ e%ey;g* `$n; hl Pl;i$k m;in aq;R_ ei@$ k;e@Rr p[cln. y; ideY edx ibedex ekn;k;$; kr; shj heY y;Y. ey k;re, em;$r g;i wbdu*itk gOhsrm;id ibir bum ed%; edY. W;$ dxekr p[qm eqekE xhuer jnjIben m;ikRnI /;-ecr e&;gb;dI s'Oitr c;l* aqRwnitk smOir l=, heY \e#. f*;xn y;nb;hn cliCc] b;d*b;jn; s^ItccR; e%l;/ul; wnxiben;dn bl@*;Ns es;s*;l @*;Ns ibY;r g;e@Rn m;ikRnI /;-ec p[k;ex* t, t,Ir ej;;Y ej;;Y ep[m;il^nsd* sm;Pt mh;yuer ibx;l =Y=it du"%yN],; h;h;k;r m;nueWr mn eqek muizeY idet q;ek. ibedxI s'Oitr AE p[c ej;Y;r p[;c* &;b/;r; eqek j;p;in d;nk;E esd;E b; yue;r ebbIbum p[jNmek sMpU,R&;eb ibiCz ker efel. ix=; p[it;en p[eY;g kr; hY m;ikRnI \ p;Xc;t* /;r;r ix=;pit. sbRe=e] t%n m;ikRnI /;-ec edxg#enr ej;Y;r. nr n;rI b*Sttr heY #et q;ek s's;r p;lenr p;x;p;ix b;Eerr kmRjIbn ineY.  p[kOtpe= mrb n; hY b;-cb AE nIit ablMbn kern kitpY m;ikRnpNhI ix=;ibd buijIbI b*bs;YI Ab' r;jnIitk yuib/St YnxIl edx j;p;nek Yenr idek ineY eyet. y;ek j;p;in &;W;Y bl; hY ek;ed; esEec; b; ܳt aqRwnitk YnmUlt ex;\Y; yuegr p[/;n wbix*.

    Ab;r es;n;lI ex;\Y; yuegr as;/;r, Yenr p[/;n ikzu `$n; tuel /r; hel p;#k buZet p;rebn ekn AE yugi$ j;p;n tq; pOiqbIr aqRnIitr Eith;es At tpU,R ?

1955 s;l. r;Es kuk;r "

    yue;r /;bm;n aqRwnitk Yenr fel j;p;in n;rIr;\ kl%;r%;n; aifsa;d;lt Ab' b;i,j*
p[it;n;idet puW x[imekr p;x;p;ix p[c b*St heY \e#n. fel smY;nubtRI Iedr jn* `r s;ml;en; p[/;n sms*; heY d;-;Y. a;r t%n smY m;en $;k;. $;k; n; q;kel b*Ybl jIbny;pn inbR;h kr; at*Nt ki#n. k;ejE ;mII dujnekE er;jg;r n; krel nY. an*idek dI`RsmY k;j kr;r pr r;et b;s;Y ifer k;# kYl; eker;isn puieY &;t r;; kr;\ Ak smYs;ep= b*;p;r. AE sms*; eqek ;r kret AigeY Ael; j;p;enr an*tm ag[sr wbd*uitk p,*p[Stk;rI p[it;n et;ixb; Eelki$[k r;Es kuk;r wtirr m;/*em. ibex AE p[qm Ak yug;Ntrk;rI `$n;. AixY;r ith* anuy;YI Ar i@j;En \ pey;igt; icNt;p[sut. p,*i$ b;j;er a;s; m;]E jnip[Yt;r xIeWR e# pe. et;ixb;r AE s;fel*r pr a;r\ keYki$ p,* wdniNdn jIbn y;penr e=e] a&utpUbR ;d Aen edY. eymn p;-i$ z*-;k;r jn* wbdu*itk e$;$;r wbdu*itk l;l nIl =u keYn b e$Tilef;n es$ Et*;id.

    an*idek aibSmrnIY `$n;r jNm edY AE smY es;in kepR;erxn bhney;g* a;/uink $[;nij$;r eri@\ b;j;rj;t ker. es;inr AE b;i,ij*k s;fl* r;t;r;it ek;Mp;nIek ibxb*;pI pirict ker tuel. et;ixb; es;in AnEis t%n p[m;, ker edY per #;r a;g[h q;kel ez;$ eqek b h\Y; sb. AixY;ek t;k l;igeY ideY j;p;in wbdu*itk p,*sr;m bzr bzr Ak$;r pr Ak$; a;ib&;Rb het q;ek. Akd; smrb;dI s;m[;j*b;dI bel kiqt j;p;n Ab;r wbdu*itk sr;m;id ideY ibxjeY abtI,R hY.

1956 s;l. s;n x en; ixn ik "

   AE bzr itni$ edbd ntun yN] b;j;er a;tp[k;x ker. y; ixELp;t /nI edexr p[tIk bel pirict. f[Ij \Y;ix' emisn Ab' e$ili&xn s;d;k;el;. el;kmue% t;r n;m hY s;n xu en; ixn ik b; itni$ edbd ntun yN]sMpd. t%n AixY;r a;r ek;n edex AEsb wtir kr; ePnr\ atIt. bl;b;l* m;ikRnI p[yuiek anusr, ker j;p;in emk;rguel; inj dxRn \ icNt;r  smneY Ak ntun yN]s&*t;r jgt sOiet eleg pe.  esE /;r; A%en; blb_ reYez t;edr ;bnI icNt;r se^
s;Mp[itkk;el a;r\ s'yu heYez Eibk$;s kiMpi$' p[yui. aqR;_ sbikzuetE kiMp$;r. fel atIetr eceY btRm;en t;edr p,*s;mg[I a;r\ be, it s;i/t heYez heCz.

1957 s;l. em;e$l b; l;&eh;e$l "

    m;ikRn /;-ecr em;e$l wtirr ihik pe y;Y AE smY. a;t;im n;mk suib%*;t p[s[bn h$iSp[' smute$ edexr
p[qm em;e$l wtir hY \nezn ireY;ek;x; b; h$iSp['Ar jel abg;hnk;rIedr jn*. t;et AkduE r;i] k;$;en; md*p;n %;\Y;d;\Y; a;nNdfuitRr a;eY;jnsmO Lpk;lIn abSh;enr =utr eh;e$elrE a;erk p AE em;e$l. y; bum heY \e# Ab' ex;\Y; yug eqek xuru ker gt xt;Ir exW n;g;d pyRNt bj;Y q;ek. prbtRIk;el AE em;e$lguel; a;r em;e$l nY l;&eh;e$l iheseb jnip[Yt; l;& ker edexr an*;n* xhrb*;pI. pyR;Pt pirm;, b;sey;g* `rb;ir a&;b j;p;enr icrk;elr sms*;. fel l;&eh;e$lE ex;\Y; yug z;ieY A%en; jnip[Y gR/;mep[mk;tr edhb;dI ik'b; t, t,Iedr jn*. l;&eh;e$l ex;\Y; yueg ann* Ak s;m;ijk p[kIk. sbt ibexr a;r\ ek;n edex Amn eh;e$l a;ez bel a;m;edr j;n; enE.

   m;ikRnI s'Oitr tIb[ es[;et &;sm;n j;p;en AE s;el rk pp g;enr sUcn; hY r;j/;nI e$;ikeY;et. b*;dl ineY t, t,Ir; b b xher Nm heY \e#. cliCce] Aes l;eg piXcmI h;\Y;. ep[mj k;ihnIr cliCc] wtirr ihik pe y;Y. y; A%en; sm;n t;el clez. f*;xnip[Y puWedr jn* b;j;er a;es p[%*;t ixesEed; p[s;/nI p[Stk;rI p[it;n ktOk wtir  sugN/I p[s;/nI.

1958 s;l. ebEj bl e%el;Y; n;g;ixm;r a;tp[k;x "

   AE bzr m;ikRnI jnip[Y e%l; ebEjbelr j;p;in s're, iyin keYkyug ik'bdNtI pirc;lk bel sMm;n l;& kerezn esE j;Y;$ a;E@l exeg\ n;g;ixm;r a;tp[k;x.

    AE s;el AE p[qm 10000 EeYenr k;guej mu; p[cilt hY. a;r\ e%ey;g* `$n; e&i' emixenr a;gmn. isg;er$ i$nj;t kif c; felr rs Ab' m;dkj;t p;nIY /;tb pYs;r ibinmeY ekn;r suey;g sOi hY. A%n j;p;enr p;h; pbRt y;nb;henr me/*\ at*;/uink e&i' emixn ibedxIedrek ibiSmt ker. isg;er$ md ibY;r b; felr rsE xu/u nY A%n e&i' emixen c;l eqek ep;x;k \Y;n$;Em k*;emr; eqek esi&i@\i@i&i@ m*;g;ijn ibi AE edex jl&;t.

   AE bzr j;p;enr p[qm sbRbOh_ sup;r ecEn e$;r d;EeYr a;tp[k;x. aep=;kOt sSt; m;l;m;l ibir AE p[it;ni$ AE esidn\ pyRNt pyR$n eh;e$elr b*bs; abi/ sMp[s;irt heYizl ikNtu tIb[ p[itey;igt; Ab' ex;\Y; yuegr tq;kiqt b;bl aqRnIit /'esr k;re, A%n g&Ir aqRs'ke$ inmm;n. tq;ip ex;\Y; yuegr pqp[dxRk d;EeYek anusr, ker ntun ntun i@;N$ e$;r A%en; j;p;en b*bs;r clit Ak p[b,t; blel atu*i heb n;  y; n; q;kel ek;irY; \ cIenr p,*s;mg[I ibir Sh;n enE j;p;en. l;g;t;r aqRwnitk mNd;Y a;;Nt m/*ib inMnm/*ib b; Lpa;eYr j;p;in Ab' ibedxIr; AEsb b;i,j*
p[it;enr p[itidnk;r et;. s;r; edxb*;pI zieY q;k; as'%* i@;N$  Ab' sup;r i@;N$ e$;sR guel;et l= l= nrn;rI inYimt kmRc;rI \ p;$R$;Em iheseb k;j krezn. bzrb*;pI ed;k;nguel;r ek;n zui$z;$; enE blelE cel. b;'l;edexr ntun b*bs;YIedr jn* AE b*bs; Aki$ cm_k;r d;hr, het p;er.

1959 s;l. En$;N$ %;d*s;mg[I.

   ibexr me/* sbt smYs;ep= Ab' m*;l; Z;eml;yu p[iY;r %;d* heCz &;rtIY /;-ecr k;ir. t;et p[m;i,t hY ey &;rtbWRIY al&u edxsmuehr sm;jjIbn kt mNhr b; pXc;_pd. j;p;en\ mh;yupUbR smeY /Ir iShr jIbn izl m;nueWr. ikNtu yue;r ex;\Y; yuegr ngrixLp;Yn j;p;enr puren; ith* r;jnIitek hi$eY ideY jnjIbnek ker tuelez mx b*itb*St Ab' ji$ltr. smY ineY k;j kr;r ek;n suey;g a;r enE A%;en. s;bR=i,k aqR \ smeYr epzen zue$ cl; b*Stt;r me/* heSt r;-/; %;ed*r ;d g[h, Ab' a;iteqYt;d;enr iStkr smY j;p;inedr h;et enE. ibx[;m Aedex h;r;m. k;ejE e%et bes j;p;inr; &;rtIY %;d* sMpekR p[x's;Y pmu% hel\ inejr; r;;Y lGnI het n;r;j Akm;] dI`RsmeYr k;re, p[bl a;g[h q;k; set\. aqc &;rtIY k;ir Ab' j;p;in inj /;-ecr k;er k;ir ey kt%;in jnip[Y %;d* AE edex t; b*;%*; kr; y;eb n;. A edex reYez agi,t &;rtIY b;'l;edxI p;ikSh;nI Ab' x[Il'k;n k;irr ed;k;n. esE k;ir\ A%n j;p;en En$;N$ b; p*;ek$ %;d* iheseb sbR] shjl&*. d;em\ sSt;. wtir ker inet\ shj. p*;ek$su grm jel fui$eY enY;r pr grm &;etr \pr e!el idelE k;ir r;Es heY egl. teb aibb;iht b*Sttm kmRjIbI nrn;rIedr e=e] En$;N$ k;ir b; j;tIY t;_=i,k grm ker drSt kr;r p*;ek$ %;d* Ak mh;`R bS. En$;N$ /;-ecr smY s;ix[t  Ab' p[iY;j;t %;b;r A%n AixY;r an*;n* edex\ ܳt p[s;r l;& krez. y;r sUcn; heYizl ex;\Y; yuegr AE s;el inxixn ex;kuihn n;mk Aki$ p[it;n eqek Pli$k p*;ek$j;t icikn r;emn icikn nu@l b;j;rj;t kr;r m/* ideY. b;j;r m;_ ker edY; p[iY;j;t AE sru cIn; nu@l b*Sttm j;p;in s*;l;rIm*n Ab' aifs el@Iedr kI p[&ut pirm;n smY \ a;iqRk s;x[eY sh;Yk heYizl t; bel exW kr; y;eb n;.
%;b;err p[iY; iheseb pirm;,mt jl fui$eY ineY t;et p*;ek$ eqek nu@l eze keYk imin$ ere% ideY t;et ss \ mirecr gu-e; imixeY inelE su;du cIn; %;b;r r;emn heY egl. Arpr n;n; /re,r En$;N$ r;emn b;j;er Aesez p*;ek$ z;;\ k;guej k;ep p[iY;j;t. ezelbue; skelr k;ez AE r;emn at*Nt jnip[Y %;d*. p[b;sI e&et; b;;ilr pyRNt ae&*s heY egezibexW ker En$;N$ k;ir r;emn k;ir ed;n e%et e%et. esE ey xuru hl En$;N$ %;b;err /;r; A%n Aek b;d ideY j;p;in %;d*s;err kq; icNt; kr; muixikl. En$;N$ r;emenr p;x;p;ix a;emirk; eqek a;md;in het xuru hY k;-ecr wbY;mj;t m*;eYl En$;N$ kif.

   AE bzerr a;r\ e%ey;g* `$n; hl es;in ek;Mp;nI b;j;er z;e ep;e$Rbl $[;nij$;r i$i& aq;R_ h;et bhnk;rI i$i&. AE bzrE es;inrE wtir $[;nij$;r eri@\ 1000000 es$ ibir erk@R Sh;pn ker. 1953 s;el c;lukOt s;d;k;el; i$i&r ibi s'%*; AE s;el 6000000 ese$ Aes d;-;Y. i$i&r AE a&utpUbR jnip[Yt; AE bzr c;lu kret s;h;y* ker rIn i$i&.

   s'Oitr idk ideY\ e%ey;g* d;hr, Sh;pn ker a;NtjR;itk ibxsuNdrI iheseb f*;xn me@l ek;ijm; emEek; purOt hn. i$i&r jnip[Yt;r k;re, ntun ntun s^ItixLpI bm;epr cliCc] t;rk;r\ jNm het q;ek Aekr pr Ak. erk@R ek;Mp;nIguel;r b*bs; heY \e# rmrm;.

AE bzer btRm;n sm[;$ a;ikihet; AE p[qm r;jkIY p[q; e&e^ ibb;h sMpkR Sh;pn kern s;/;r, n;girk Ak pirb;err kn*; imicek; ex;\d;ek. t;-r ipt; Aki$ b;i,j* p[it;enr k,R/;r Ab' /nx;lI b*i.

1960 s;l. ep[efr h;s.

    AE bzerr p[/;n `$n; heCz ntun yur;[ j;p;n inr;p; cui sMp;dn. AE inr;p;r e&tr ideY j;p;n ܳt a;iqRk Yenr sIm; aitm ker eyet q;ek. t;r p[m;, m;isk mjuir m;n \eYj $*;;@R. a;emirk;r nY &;egr Ak Ab' bOi$exr c;r &;egr Ak &;eg r,. j;tIY _p;dn ijAnip Ar h;r xtkr; dx &;g. AE bzer j;p;en ibit xu/um;] edxIY
p[;Ee&$ em;$r g;ir s'%*; 400000 i$. 

   e%ey;g* `$n; ip[efr h;s bum. j;Yg;r d;m ibexr me/* sbeceY ebix t_k;lIn j;p;en s*;l;rIm*;nsh ixLpI s;ihit*kedr a;jIbnk;r PnAki$ inj Aktl; b;i. ikNtu a;Yt kr; izl ePnr\ atIt. t%n due/r ;d e`;el em$;en;r jn* dY hl m;ikRnI /;-ecr ip[efs h;s aq;R_ p[;kgi#t gOh. j;Yg; ekn; hel\ b*Yb;el*r k;re, b;i heY n; \#; m;ilkr; En$;N$ b;s; wtirr idek Zu-ek pen. Aki$ ek;Mp;nI eqek xuru heY prbtRI a;$i$ ek;Mp;nI t%n wtir b;i ibi krt.  AE bzr t; bum heY ed%; idel\ sudup[s;rI hYin. eknn; m*;nsn b; f*;$b;i ibir /um pe y;Y sr dxek.

1961 s;l. e$;eY;$; p;bilk;r a;tp[k;x.

   j;p;enr g;i bletE Ak nMbr heCz e$;eY;$;r g;i Ab' eh;;r em;$r b;Ek ibxb*;pI jnip[Y. AE bzr xu/um;] a;&*NtrIn b;j;erE s;/;r, g;ir eceY =u;k;err em;$r g;i Ab' k*;emr; s;fl* l;& ker. e$;eY;$; t;r ntun em;$r g;i p;bilk; b;j;rj;t ker Ak e;/nI p[dxRnIr m/* ideY. el;ek el;k;r,* heY \e# esE p[dxRnI. ibi\ heY y;Y ܳt. =u pirb;r y;et t;edr em;$r g;ir Pnek eYr a;Yet a;net p;ern es le=* g;iguel; h;lk; Ab' sSt; kr; hY. etl\ y;et ebix n; %;Y esidek l=* r;%; hY. Ak il$;r etel 24 ik im clet s=m izl AE g;iguel;. abx* m;nueWr b*igt a;Y\ bOi p;Y AE bzer. fel g;i ekn;r /um eleg y;Y b b xher. xu/u e$;eY;$;E nY p;x;p;ix sub;ru ek;Mp;nI\ anurup g;i b;j;rj;t ker. ex;\Y; yuegr AE h;lk; \ =u g;ir /;r; A%n an*;n* ixeLp;t edxguel;ek\ p[&;ibt kerez. 1/2 a;snibix em;$r g;i
A%n j;p;en t,edr me/* at*Nt jnip[Y.

   k*;emr; blet\ a;mr; j;p;nek icin. EY;ixk; fuij epn$*; inkn k*;nn ailMp;s irek; p[&Oit jg_ib%*;t emk;rguel; ex;\Y; yuegE itr cu;Nt ix%er epo-ezez. AE bzr k*;nn ek;Mp;nI Ak p[dxRnIr m;/*em b;j;rj;t ker ntun k*;emr; k*;Y;nen$. 19800 EeYenr Ak Aki$ k*;emr; p[dxRnIet dx h;j;ri$ ibir erk@R Sh;pn ker AkidenE p;irb;irk 
AE jnip[Yt; k*;emr; bumekE inedRx ker.

AE bzr kOiWyN]p;itr\ p[&ut it s;i/t hY. /;enr c;r; ep;t;r ekoxl smO $[;k$r `;s k;$;r emixn p[&ut pirm;e, e=t%;m;er b*bht h\Y;r fel kOiW _p;dn bOi epet q;ek. kOWkedr a;iqRk sCzlt; ajRn pirli=t hY.

an*idek xhuer jIbny;penr iben;dn e=e] ntun s;^Iitk t;libix p[b,t; sOi hY p;Xc;t* s'Oitr p[&;eb. er$uereN$ yN]s^It Ab' gItb;denr m/* ideY smYek pe&;g kr;. ai/k;'xE ibxibd*;lYg;mI Ab' t, kmRjIbIr; smebt hetn AE sb c;eYr ed;k;n kifxp Ab' er$uereN$. eysb dlguel;  AEsb aun;enr a;ey;jn kretn t;edr n;m\ izl ibic] eymn ddmp; p;c;^; sukusuku p[&Oit. xu/u g;n nY s^Ietr t;el t;el t, kibedr rict kibt; a;bOi\ ht.

AE bzr p[qm b;j;rj;t kr; hY a;nen n;mk b;e;j;t i$su*epp;r. e;/n kr; hY AixY; mh;edexr p[qm i@jnIl*; icb; ejl;Y.

1962 s;l. pil b;ek$.

    AE s;elr e%ey;g* ibWY heCz r;j/;nI e$;ikeY;r el;ks'%*; Ak ek;i$et Aes d;-;Y. es Ak ibx;l jns'%*; mh;nger in"seNdeh. m;nuW\ eymn ebix mYl; a;bjRn;\ ttE h\Y; ;&;ibk. e$;ikeY;r aenk xhrE izl t%n btRm;n klk;t; !;k;r mtn en;'r; \ ibxO'%l;pU,R. 1964 s;el anuit het y;eCz e$;ikeY; ailiMpk. AixY; mh;edex p[qm a;Ntj;Ritk I; _sb. xhr pir;r kr; jruir. Ae icNt;&;bn; eqekE pirkLpn; enY; hY k;-c; a;bjRn; y] t] n; efel Aki$ p;e] jm; ker r;%; hel t; etmn dugRN/ z;eb n; k;k eb;l kukur Ab' izmul m;nueWr ;r; xhrmY zieY izi$eY y;eb n; Ab' epor ktOpe=r pe=\ s'g[h kr; suib/;jnk heb Amn p;] ;bn. a;r esi$E hl ex;\Y; yuegr a;erk sOi pil b;ek$ b; Pl;i$ekr b !;kn;\l; b;lit ibexW. A%n anurup b;lit a;l;d; kr; heYez Aki$ d;h* \ an*i$ /;tb j;tIY a;bjRn; r;%;r jn*. irs;Eik'ek guruetr se^ ibebcn; ker a;bjRn;ek du&;eg ib& kr; heCz.

AE bzr kmRjIbI j;p;inedr m;q;ipzu a;Y 16200 EeYen Aes d;-;Y.

   puWedr bgelr `;mjint dugRN/ durIkre, a*;iN$ p;riSperN$ b;n eSp[ j;tIY p[s;/nI b;j;rj;t kr; hY. A%n ibi& /renr puW p[s;/nI b;j;er reYez. ܳt ixLp;Yn \ ngr;Yenr k;re, r;j/;nIsh b b xher b;Yu \ pirebx  dUWe,r ixk;r s;/;r, n:Girkr; ibexW ker ixxur;. ixxuedr m;q;b*;q; \ jerr p[iteW/k icle@[ns b;f;irn $*;bel@ b;j;er a;es. AE bzr s;r;nr; b; ifnifen p;tl; Pl;i$ekr er;lp*;ek$ gOih,Iedr jn* su%br beY a;en. AE Pl;i$ekr xIe$ x;ksbij m;z m;'s ik'b; r;; kr; tirtrk;ir mue f[Iej ere% idel dI`R smeYr b*b/en setj q;ek. A$; A%n apirh;yR rIit heY egez.

1963 s;l. i$su* epp;r.

   h;t muzet n;k muzet xIt p[/;n edex i$su* epp;r anIk;yR. j;p;en A$; a;md;nI heYez ex;\Y; yueg. Ab' ainb;yR heY e#ez AE sm;ej. kt rkemr i$su*epp;r ey A%n j;p;en a;ez t; bel l;& enE. AE bzr p[qm nrm Ab' &;el; m;enr b;e;j;t i$su*epp;r b;j;r kr; hY. du/re,r i$su*epp;r b;j;er a;es Aki$ iknens an*i$ sueki$* abx* p[qm idek ebx d;m pel\ A%n aenk sSt; i$su*epp;r b;j;er p;\Y; y;eCz.

   m;ikRn yur;[ eqek a;gt eb;il' Aki$ e%l; AE bzr jnip[Yt;r cu;Nt pyR;eY \e#. a'xg[hnk;rIr s'%*; d;-;Y 1 ek;i$et. r;j/;nI sh b b xher AE e%l; bum heY ed%; edY. kmR;s bel pirict s*;l;rIm*;nedr x;rIirk k;iNt dUrIkre, b;j;er a;es ;Shkr p;nIYirep;ibt;n i@. A%en; Ar jnip[Yt; tue^. AE yuegE pr pr an*;n* a;r\ kmRk;iNt dUrIkr, xix;lI p;nIY c;lu kr; xuru hY.

   AE bzerr e%ey;g* a;r\ Aki$ `$n; j;p;enr sbR;i/k myR;d;sMp p[;cIn p[k;xn; s'Sh; ehEeb;nx; p;bilx;r ek;Mp;nI eqek p[k;ixt eGl;is epp;er muit k;l;r tq*sN/;nI men;rk k;gj egK;n t;EeY; b; m;isk sUyR. p[;Y dux pO;r AE s;miYkIi$ dI`R cix bzr p[k;xn;r pr bzr %;enk a;eg Shigt heY pe teb ibexW s'%*; iheseb bzer c;ri$ s'%*; p[k;ixt heCz. AE /re,r b*Ybl ikNtu tq*smO a;nNds^I p[k;xn; t%n a;r izl n; A%en; enE.

1964 s;l. kiMp$;r.

   Eele[;in srm;id p[Stk;rI j;p;in emk;rguel; ex;\Y; yueg p;esR;n;l kiMp$;r ipis wtir ker p[&Ut pirm;, aqRx;lI hY. kiMp$;r p[Setr pUebR et;ixb; a;r Aki$ yug;Ntk;rI `$n;r jNm ideYizl$;Epr;E$;r Ar pirbetR \Y;@R
p[essr wtir ker. t;et xu/um;] $;Ep kr; nY g[;ifk i@j;En ep;$k;@R Ab' *;nkOt zib pyRNt rIn irbnk;ilet mu, kr; eyt. et;ixb;r ed%;edi% prbtRIk;el p[;Y p[iti$ emk;rE Ak;i/k gu,m;nsMp \Y;@R p[essr wtir ker. sudI`Rk;l \Y;@R p[essr d;ru, jnip[Yt; /er ere%izl a*;pl ek;Mp;nIr ipis m*;ikn$s b;j;er a;s; pyRNt.

   j;p;en p[qm b m;epr kiMp$;r a;md;in kr; hY a;emirk; eqek AE bzr. p[is emk;r x;pR ek;Mp;nI wtir ker b a;kOitr wbdu*itk k*;lkuel$r.

   1964 s;l j;p;enr Eith;es Smr,IY n;n; k;re,. eymn AE bzr 18 tm a;Ntj;Ritk ailiMpk I;nu;n e$;ikeY;et anuit hY. t;et jwnk j;p;in e%el;Y; edo p[itey;igt;Y eb[; pdk ajRn kr;r kOitt ed%;n. ibexr ܳtg;mI Eelki$[k e$[n ixnk;nehn b; buel$ e$[n c;lu y; ibxek htb;k ker edY.

   em m;esr 11 t;ir% p[k;ixt hY a;el;n sOik;rI s;Pt;ihk clit f*;xn \ `$n;sbR m*;g;ijn ehEeb;n p;nict, s*;l;rIm*;nedr k;ez d;, mu%er;ck k;gj heY \e#.

1965 s;l. AY;rkixn;r.

xItp[/;n edex g[ISm k;el ebx grm pe. s;Mp[itkk;el p[c grem h;-sf;-s ker j;p;inr;. j;p;in emk;rguel; mh;yuer pr gOhpirebx Ab' xItl kr;r le=* AY;rkul;r wtir xuru ker. AE bzr Aes Ay;kul;rek AY;rkixn;r n;em b;j;er z;e. emk;rguel;r me/* erlg;ir Einp[Stk;rI p[;cIntm b%*;t p[it;n iht;icr AY;rkixn;r jnip[Yt;r xIeWR abSh;n enY. s*;l;rIm*;nedr m;Eeh;m b;s;b;iet m;nsMp AY;rkixn Sh;pn t;edrek xIet \ g[IeSm sit* x;iNtr gRel;ek ep-oez edY. ex;\Y; yuegE a;r\ tm;enr AY;rkixn;r j;p;in emk;rguel; wtir tumul p[itey;igt;r me/*.

   j;p;n AY;rl;ENs s'e=ep j;lnb* /nI Akdl j;p;inedr ineY p[qm j;lp*;k ibedx menr pirkLpn; g[h, ker. AE bzr b*Ybl p[qm dli$ eY;er;epr peq p;i jm;Y. AE pyRNt ibedx gmenr ai&+t;hIn s;/;r, j;p;inr; a;iqRk p[tult;r gue, ibedx y;\Y; xuru ker Ab' ex;\Y; yuegE h;\Y;E Ip mn bum heY ed%; edY. p*;irs Ab' h;\Y;Eet ibeYr anu;n kr; rIitmt Ak Nm p[b,t;E izl AE esidn pyRNt.

   AE bzr Aki$ i$i& c*;enel Eele&n ipAm n;em wnx m*;g;ijn anu;n c;lu hY. y;r ibWYbS izl ai/k;'x f*;xn e$[I nrn;rI ai&ent; ai&en]Ir mu%er;ck jIbny;pn n;E$k;b $[Ip@*;Ns k;b p,RifLm jgt Et*;id. anu;ni$ ebx jnip[Yt; ajRn kerizl belE dudxekr ai/kk;l c;lu izl.

   65 s;elr at*Nt e%ey;g* Ab' p[k;xn; jget b*bs; sfl `$n;r jNm edY ehEeb;nx; p;bilx;r ek;Mp;nI ktOk j;p;en
p[qm rIn ibxek;W n;girk ibWYk ek;W p[&Oit tq*smO mh;g[Nh;id p[k;x Ab' dudxk /er bum iheseb p[c
jnip[Yt; /er r;%et s=m hY. A%n abx* isi@ er;em ek;Wguel; !uek peez ikNtu ex;\Y; yug aibSmr,IY heY a;ez AE ek;Wguel;r p[k;exr jNmk;l iheseb.

1966 s;l. pueWr prcul;.

   AE bzr izl cIen s;'Oitk ibPlebr bzr. a;r j;p;en ed%; edY purueWr prcul; b*bh;err bum. xu/u ey m;q;r cul enE bel prcul; ekn;r ihik pe t;E nY f*;xn iheseb\ ibic] nkx;r prcul; pr;r p[b,t; Ak h;s*kr piriShitr sOi ker. t;edr ai/k;'x izl m/*bY. ehY;r ips n;MnI AE prcul;r ed;k;guel;et t, t,Ir;\ ey ekotuhlbxt" &I kerin t; nY. g,m;/*em ebx a;el;n tuelizl AE prcul; p[b,t;. ikNtu ex;\Y; yueg xuru heY A%en; AE prcul; b; k;_sur; Ak bOh_ b*bs; j;p;en. $;k !;ket b*Ybl prcul; Y kret em;e$E i/;eb;/ krezn n; puW b; mihl;r; eknn; $;k/;rI b*iedr j;p;en p[s dOiet ed%; hY n;.

   s'Oit e=e] a;egr bzrguel;r met; h;\Y;E p[&;b ab*;ht q;ek. A bzr aitir iben;dn iheseb h;\Y;EY;n esN$;r e;/n kr; hY ey%;en h;\Y;E Iepr nOt*gItb;dn Ab' %;b;rd;b;r pe&;g kr;r suey;g l;& ker h;\Y;Eep[mI j;p;inr;.
p[is p[s;/nI p[it;n ixesEed; ktOk p[k;ixt a/RnGn t,I me@elr ep;$;r cuirr `$n; eqek ep;$;r cuirr bum ed%; edY. AE bzr b;j;er a;es wbdu*itk \e&n. es;in ek;Mp;nI wtir ker k*;es$ erk@R;r. y; ܳt ibxb*;pI jnip[Yt; ajRn ker.

1967 s;l. imin;$R

   sudOx* ikem;en;r edex p;Xc;et*r imin;$R AE bzr Aes piSht hY. Ar m;] bzr duE a;eg len imin;$R Ar a;ib&;Rb. p;Xc;et*r f*;xn j;p;in emeYedr a;kO kerez itIY mh;yuer a;egE. t;edrek t%n bl; ht em;g;g;lR b; m@;nR g;lR. j;p;in emeYr; br;brE esoNdyR sectn. ex;\Y; yueg j;p;n ibxf*;xen an*tm p[/;n Sh;n d%l ker enY. e$;ikeY; heY \e# AixY;r a;/uink f*;xenr Akm;] m. ibexr ibix f*;xn i@j;En;redr me/* ebx keYkjn AE yueg a;tp[k;x kern. eymn h;n;eY em;ir Eses imY;ek Eixd; jun k;\Y;kueb; p[mu%. AE bzr ey xu/u imin;$R a;el;n tuelez t;E nY emeYedr b=bN/nI Ab' epiN$r\ mp[dxRnI aenkekE t;k l;igeY ideYez.

   m;ikRn \ eY;erpIY a;del pp b*;dl 200 eqek 300 et bOi p;Y. t;edr me/* m;ikRnI ihir p[&;b\ Aes l;eg. Sn;k p;b b;r nu*@k;b p[&Oit p;nx;l; \ eyoniben;denr b*bs; mb/Rm;n p /;r, ker. p;x;p;ix eg;eg; i@sek;sh eg;eg; er$uerN$ eg;eg; b;r ebe cll. W;$ dxekr idek Et;ilet wtir k;bY cliCc] m*;k;er;in \eY$;,R n;em j;p;en b*;pk piricit l;& ker. xu/u t;E nY AE jnip[Yt;r k;re, Et;ilet wtir ey ek;n ijins p[c ip[Y heY \e#.

1968 s;l. eri@\ e$perk@R;r.

   m;ikRn yur;e[r ihi s'Oit j;p;enr tru, sm;ej d;ru, a;el;n tuel fel ihiedr anukre, b*;delr g;n k*;ese$ erk@R kr;r /um pe y;Y. AE g;n ex;n; \ erk@R kr;r jn* wbdu*itk emk;rguel; wtir ker n;n; rkm eri@\sh e$perk@;Rr. b;j;er a;s; m;]E t; bum heY ed%; edY. xu/u a;&*NtrIn b;j;rE nY bihRibexr b;j;r\ j;p;n Aktrf;&;eb d%l ker enY.

   AE bzr eqek ibb;h anu;n jmk;el; a;k;r /;r, ker. tru,edr me/* emeYil s;js;r f*;xn p[b,t; l=,IY heY \e#. jnip[Y tru, el%k ixLpIedr s'sd sds* h\Y;r /um pe y;Y. e$;ikeY; jue AE smY s;Eeki@[k b; Nd[j;ilk r'ibix ep;$;r ic]kmR Ab' ep;x;kpirCzd xherr pirebx bdel edY. mn;$k ibWYk m*;g;ijn m;ng; tq; k;$Run A*;inemxn m*;g;ijn bEp] p[k;exr fel p[k;xn; b*bs; rmrm; a;k;r /;r, ker. AE bzr s;ihit*k r;jwnitk b*it k;\Y;b;t; EY;sun;ir s;ihet* en;ebl pur;r epel t;-r p[k;xn;guel; d;ru, jnip[Yt; l;& ker Ab' ekn;r /um pe y;Y.

   AE bzr p[qm b;j;rj;t kr; hY p*;ek$ k;ir y; p*;ek$su grm ker &;etr \pr e!el idelE r;Esk;ir heY y;Y. eb;nk;erA n;mk AE p*;ek$ k;ir A%en; sm;n jnip[Y. abx* Ar pr a;e\ aenk p*;ek$k;ir b;j;er Aesez. j;p;en a;ix[t b;;il ibPlbI r;sibh;rI bsu ktOk p[cilt ik'bdNtI%*;t &;rtIY k;ir y; n;k;mur;Y; en; k;ir n;em pirict A%n b;j;er p*;ek$ iheseb p;\Y; y;eCz.

   nb*/nI j;p;en AE smY ep$bum\ Aki$ e%ey;g* idk. ep$pxu iheseb eb;l kukuerr jn* ibl;sbl h;sp;t;l ibi$p;lR;r pyRNt es%;en ge \e#. pxuep;W; A%n a;r\ jnip[Y.

1969 s;l. i@ij$;l h;t`i.

   AE bzr j;p;n ijAnipr idk ideY ibexr itIY Sh;en It h]Y;r kOitt ajRn ker. srk;rI aqRwnitk s;h;y* ODA c;lu kr;r 1954 pr AE bzr 15 tm bWR. p[qm s;h;y* p[d;n kr; hY &;retek. a;NtjR;itk a;iqRk s;h;y* pirkLpn; kleMb; Pl*;n Ar an*tm s;h;y* p[d;nk;rI edx iheseb j;p;n a;tp[k;x ker. Eitme/* i@ij$;l p[yui a;ib&R;b `e$ez j;p;en. AE p[%*;t `i p[Stutk;rI p[it;n esEek; b;j;rj;t ker p[qm i@ij$;l h;t`i esEek; kueYij. Arpr k*;iseY; ek;Mp;nI wtir kret q;ek Ak$;r pr Ak$; ibi& i@j;Eenr h;t`i e$ibl`i. b;j;er a;s; i@ij$;l h;t`i jnip[Yt; ajRn kret iblMb hYin. xu/um;] j;p;in b;j;rE nY ܳt bihRibexr b;j;r\ d%l ker efel k*;iseY;.

   AE bzr b;j;er gOhs;r jn* h;lk; a;sb;bp] et;r dOi akWR, ker. AkE r' Ab' nkx;r AE a;sb;bp] (Unit Furniture) aibb;iht nrn;rI Ab' sd* ibb;iht dMpitr jn* ait ܳt apirh;yR heY \e#. a;r\ Aki$ ntun rIitr s'ey;g `e$ aqRwnitk e=e] esi$ hl k*;xk;@R Ar b*bh;r. subOh_ b;i,j* p[it;n suimet;em; b*;'k AE k*;xk;@R p[cln ker. y;et k;$m;r y%n t%n b*;'k eqek AE k;e@Rr m;/*em Y'iY ATM ae$;emi$k e$l;r emixn eqek $;k; tulet p;er. anurUp&;eb @;Y;l pitr m;/*em\ k*;xk;@R b*bh;r ker $;k;pYs; elnedn kr;r suey;g sOi hY AE ex;\Y; yueg.  esE ey j;p;in sm;ej k;e@Rr p[cln xuru hl a;r q;emin. A%n puer; edx$;E !uek peez ibi& ibic] k;e@Rr i&ter p[it e=e]E A%n apih;yR heY d;-ieYez AE Pl;i$k k;@R. e$[enr met; A%n k*;xk;@R ei@$k;@R xip'k;@R peYN$k;@R emMb;rk;@R m*;i@k*;lk;e@Rr edx\ j;p;n.

1970 s;l. i&i@\ e$perk@R;r i&i$a;r

   AE bzerr e%ey;g* ibWY heCz b;i,ij*k mh;ngr \s;k;et ib+;n \ p[yuii&ik eml; \Y;L@R Aep;ijxn 70. AE
p[dxRnIet ibexr b edx a'xg[h, ker. AE ibx;l b;eje$r a;eY;jn ixeLp;t edexr an*tm p[/;n l=,. el;ek el;k;r,* AE p[dxRnI a;&*NtrI, b;i,j*ek shs; c;^; ker tuel Ab' b;i,ej* j;p;n d;ru, s;fl* l;& kret s=m hY. AE p[dxRnIr m;/*em j;p;en AE p[qm i&i$a;r b;j;er a;gmn ker. Ab' ekn;r ihik pe y;Y. t;r pr AE ex;\Y; yuegE a&UtpUbR ;bn
Video Home System (VHS) aqb; clit &;W;Y i&i@\ k*;es$ wtir kret s=m hY j;p;n i&r ek;Mp;nI eji&is. t;r ed%;edi% es;in ek;Mp;nI wtir  b*;$;m*; imin i&i@\ k*;es$ ikNtu es$; b;j;r /er r;%et p;erin eji&isr met;. teb AE ex;\Y; yuegr exW idekE es;in \Y;km*;n Ab' isi@ b; kmp*; i@sk b;j;er eze b;ij m;_ ker edY. A%n isi@ in&Rr i@i&i@ e@ij$;l i&i@\ i@sk i&i@\ek hi$eY ideCz ܳt.

   j;p;in Eith;es ex;\Y; yug 192689 Ak ibSmYkr smeYr n;m. eymn du"s;hs Ab' edxg#enr idk ideY etmin&;eb yue;r b;bl b; bu-dbu-d aqRnIit sOir idk ideY. Amn ܳt aqRwnitk ibPlb ibexr a;r ek;n edex k%en;E `e$in. m;nuW eymn duh;et $;k; a;Y kerez etmin b*Y kerez. b b ek;Mp;nIguel; m;ikRn yur;e[r Sh;nIY ebxikzu myR;d;sMp b;i,ij*k p[it;n Y ker ibxek cmk l;igeY edY. j;p;in m;l;m;el a;emirk; \ eY;er;pIY edxguel; sYl;b heY y;YA%n eymn cIn; p,*s;mg[Iet. em;;kq; ae!l k;-c; EeYenr yug izl AE ex;\Y;y%n j;p;n sh ibxb*;pI ireYl Ae$$ e@e&lpemN$ ek;Mp;nI b; gOhinmR;, p[it;nguel; g;d; g;d; EeYenr b*bs; kerez zibr met; esoNdyRmY ker ideYez j;p;enr &Umlek. a;r $;k; izl belE ix=; s'Oit ixLpkl; I; a;r s;m;ijk e=e] a&UtpUbR it s;i/t heYez.

   AE pebR ex;\Y; 30 s;l eqek 45 s;l aq;R_ 1955 eqek 70 s;l pyRNt j;p;enr aqRwnitk s;fel*r ikzu p[/;n `$n; tuel /r; hl. b;r;eNt 1971 eqek 89 pyRNt ex;\Y; yuegr a;erk aecn; j;p;nek piSht kr;r EeCz rEl.

smSt zibE el%ekr esojen* p[;
el%ekr e-mail :  probir@manchitro.net

el%ekr an*;n* rcn;

|terms of use | privacy statement |for advertiser| viswayan.com2002-03,All Rights Reserved