mh;ibPlbI r;sibh;ir bsu \ &;retr Sb;/Int;

p[bIr ibk;x srk;r
el%k " aitiq gebWk irs;cR esN$;r fr m@;,R a*; kne$eMp;r;ir S$;i@j t;kuex;ku ibXbibd*;lY j;p;n

   &;retr Sb;/Int; ajRenr ibgt p;x bzerr me/* ent;jI su&;W cNd[ bsuek ineY yt%;in a;el;cn; heYez &;rtb;'l;edxj;p;en t;r tuln;Y etmn ikzuE a;el;ict hYin j;p;n p[b;sI duE ibPlbI r;sibh;ir bsu Ab' ehrMbl;l sMpekR. tbu\ r;sibh;ir bsu m;eZ m;eZ iZilk idel\ ibSmre,r atel tileY egezn ehrMbl;l . &;rtbWR tq; m;tO&Uimr Sb;/Int;r jn* AE dujn ibPlbI ibedex eqek kI pirm;n pirx[m Ab' em/; b*;Y kerezn t;r mUl*;Yn heYez kt%;in ? A p[Xn ;pn kr;E eyet p;er.ik&;eb kI abSq;Y ek;n piriSqitet t-;edr jIbn ait;Nt heYez j;p;n sh AixY;r an*;n* edx smUeh AE Eith;s b;;il ik'b; &;rtIYr; peezn ikn; j;in n;. yid pe q;ekn t;hel inXcYE t;r a;el;cn; ht t-;r; a;j ent;jIr s;eq punRmUl*;Yenr a;el;Y ;ist heY #etn. ikNtu du&R;g*jnk hel\ st* ey esE l=, pirli=t heCz n;. teb piXcmbg r;ej*r r;j/;nI ek;lk;t;Y r;sibh;r  bsur Aki$ bOh_ mUitR r;j* srk;r Sq;n kerezn be$ ikNtu t-;r jIbinith;s b;'l; &;W;Y p[k;x kerezn bel j;n; enE. a;j t-;edr sh skl mh;n b;;ilr ibPlbIedr Eith;s skl [jeNmr m;nueWr j;n; p[eY;jn.

   ibPlbI r;sibh;ir bsur smk;lIn a;erkjn Sb;/Int;k;mI r;jwnitk kmIR t;rkn;q d;s iyin ib[i$x&;retr smY j;p;en Aesizeln. a;emirk;Sq &;rtIY Sb;/Int;r jn* a;eNd;lnk;rI &;rtIY p[b;sIedr s'Sq; g;d;r p;i$Rr s;eq s'yu izeln. prbtIRk;el em/;bI t;rkn;q kliMbY; ibXbibd*;leY a/*;pk heYizeln. itIY ibXbyuer pr j;p;en anuit eneSk;r Ak s&;Y a;miN]t aitiq ihs;eb piSqt heY Cc keN# belizeln j;p;enr a;tt*;egr i&ietE &;rt bmR; \ EeNd;enixY;r Sb;/Int; aijRt heYizl. itin a;r\ belizeln ibPlbI r;sibh;ir bsur jIbnI ek;q;Y ? yid n; q;ek t;hel a;pn;r; il%un a;im es$; &;rtIY &;W;Y anub;d ker s;/;r, &;rtIyedr et idet c;E. esE a;hB;en s;; ideY r;sibh;ir bsur x;i ek;eK; es;m; Ab' t-;r edbr EY;su\ es;m; mh;ibPlbIr jIbnI ele%n Ab' g[Nq;k;er p[k;x kern. j;p;in &;W;Y ili%t esE jIbnI @" t;rkn;q d;s &;rtIY &;W;Y tjRm; kerizeln ikn; es ibWeY sMp[it p[k;ixt Ened; ed;kuir_su en; ixix et; ineh;jnijn g[eNqr el%k gebWk eY;ixt;ik h;r; mh;xY p[Xn tuelezn y; a;m;edr\ p[Xn. h;r; mh;xY a;r\ belezn AE g[Nqi$ /u r;sibh;ir bsur b*;igt jIbenr k;ihnIE nY j;p;n hs di=,pUbR aixY;Y s'`i$t &;rtIY Sb;/Int; a;eNd;lenr\ Eith;s. a;r\ bl; y;Y
mh; AixY; yuer\ Aki$ tBpU,R dill. Eith;esr s;mig[k idk eqek\ anusN/;enr p[eY;jnIYt; inedRx krez Ab' btRm;n ep[iqet  tBpU,R ibWY heCz Akux xtek iniht &;rtj;p;n ip;=IY sMpekRr p[kOt EitbO &Y edexr n;girkedr ;r; punRb;r SbIkOt kr;en;.

   anmnIY g[ ibPlbI bel kiqt r;sibh;ir bsu &;rt t*;g ker p;ileY j;p;en a;x[Y g[h, kern 1915 s;el.
j;p;en t%n t;Eex; yug Ab' t;Eex; 4 bzr. AEyueg j;p;en ith;isk t;Eex; g,tN] p[it;r eymn sUcn; heYez etmin j;tIYt;b;edr ;n\ `e$ez p[bl&;eb. &;rtbWRb*;pI ib[i$x eSbt;^ x;senr ibe ibPlbIedr sxS] a;eNd;ln \ a;m, ej;rd;r hiCzl mx. mh;t; g;N/I pit eneh p*;e$l itlk xr_cNd[ bsu su&;W bsu ibebk;nNd rbINd[n;q suerNd[n;q #;kur suerNd[n;q beNd*;p;/;Y icrn d;x p[mu% ib[i$x x;sn ex;W, wbWm* \ at*;c;err ibe es;Cc;r heYezn. j;tIYt;b;edr ;n `$;et rbINd[n;q ile% celezn Ak$;r pr Ak$; dI p[bN/ kibt;ep[em a;Plut SbedxI g;n. /u rbINd[n;qE nn bikmcNd[ ce|;p;/*;Y rjnIk;Nt esn iekNd[l;l r;Y\ r ql;en; mn s;lk g;n Ak$;r pr Ak$; rcn; kret l;geln. zieY pet l;gl t; s;/;r, m;nueWr me/* xhr g[;m p[t*Nt al pyRNt. ek;k;t !;k; c|g[;m sh b;'l; aelr p[;Y sbR] cleZ j;tIYt;b;di sxS] ibPlbIedr eSbt;^ in/n Ab' aS]lu$. esE ibPlbIedr an*tm p[/;n izeln r;sibh;ir bsu. AE ibPlbIedr izl xix;lI `-;i$ ey;g;ey;g Ab' ibSbSt entOtB. muik;mI s;/;r, m;nueWr smRqn t-;edr kmRk;ek s;ibRk git ideYizl. &;retr an*;n* aelr eceY b;'l; ael Sb;/Int;r a;eNd;ln Ab' sxS] ibPlbIedr t_prt; izl at*Nt b*;pk \ p[c. a;r sUcn;\ hy A%;en. 

   AE ibPlbI aeNd;lenr y;ek bl; heY q;ek b;'l;r aiGnyug jn* `e$ b;'l;r nbj;gr, sUcn;k;rI #;kur pirb;err sds* suerNd[n;q #;kuerr eporihet* 1902 s;el anuxIln simit g#enr m/* ideY. b;'l; tq; &;retr p[qm AE simiti$r jNmpebR reYez jwnk j;p;in e`;r j;tIyt;b;dIr p[er;cn; Ab' siY ed*;g. itin heCzn j;p;enr sbRjn
x[eY mnIWI etnixn \k;kur; k;k;ej; \k;kur;. itin &;ret p[qm Aesizeln &iGn inebidt;r a;mN]e,. &iGn inebidt;r s;eq izl suerNd[n;q #;kuerr ey;g;ey;g. inebidt;E t;ek suerNd[n;eqr s;eq pircY kireY edn. g&Ir b;;il j;tIYt;b;ed ibXb;sI ipt;m;t; set*Nd[n;q #;kur \ +;nd;niNdnI edbIr pirb;er 1872 s;el jNm suerNd[n;q ezelebl; eqekE izeln Aker;%; Sb&;ebr Ab' eyoben ipt;m;t; z;;\ %ut;t rbINd[n;eqr p[&;b izl t;r pr p[c. eyobenr p[;rM& eqekE wbPlibk a;dexRr
p[it itin Z-uekizeln. t-;r AE m;nsek sMpU,R&;eb p[eB;ilt kern etnixn. t-;edr dujenr me/* g&Ir bN/uetBr sOi hY d[t. etnixn y%nE klk;t; a;setn suerNd[n;eqr b;iet abSq;n kretn. t-;edr bN/utB \ icNt;&;bn; AmnE ibXbSt;r pyR;eY ep-oezizl ey etnixn t-;r ith*b;hI pirb;err Aki$ tel;Y;r suerNd[n;qek bN/uetBr p[tIk Sbp ph;r ideYizeln. j;p;inr; y; k%en;E kern n;. etnixenr ed*;egE mUlt ibPlbIdelr p[it; l;& ker. AE p[it;enr s;eq t%n prbtIRk;el aenk ib%*;t b*;i jit izeln siY&;eb. eymn ibebk;neNdr ez;$&;E yug;Ntr pi]k;r sMp;dk Ab' &;retr aiGnyuegr puer;/; @ &UepNd[n;q d p[mqn;q im] ip im] icrn d;x aribNd e`;W &iGn inebidt; p[mU%. suerNd[n;q simitr ek;W;/*= inyu heYizeln. itin ibPlbIedr s;eq inYimt ey;g;ey;g r;%etn Ab' aqR ey;g;n idetn. p[eY;jen aeS]r\ b*bSq; kretn bel j;n; y;Y. #;kur b;iet\ ibPlbIr; a;s;y;\Y; kretn bel abnINd[n;q #;kuerr ed[oih] suel%k em;hnl;l geg;p;/*;eYr el%;Y reYez. itin a;r\ belezn suerNd[n;q ibPlbIedrek ggenNd[n;eqr k;ez ineY a;setn. b;rIn e`;W Aesezn ;s kr Aesezn %ub sM&bt r;sibh;ir bsu \ aribNd e`;W\ Aesezn. a;Nd;m;en Ip;Ntirt heYizeln y-;r; t-;edr p[;Y skelrE ey;g;ey;g izl suerNd[n;q \ ggenNd[n;eqr s;eq. /;r,; kr; y;Y etnixenr s;eq ai/k;'x ibPlbIedr p[t*= s;=;_ `e$ q;keb ej;;s-;ek;r #;kurb;iet. r;sibh;ir ehrMbl;l t-;edr me/* an*tm. j;p;in kl;ixeLpr t_k;lIn p[/;n pOep;Wk ixLpI ixLpkl;r Eith;sibd \ p[;c*b;dI icNtk etnixn \k;kur;r p[&;b z;;\ t%n b;;il ibPlbIedr SbedxI a;eNd;len a;r\ anup[;i,t ker 1905 s;el s'`i$t xj;p;n yue j;p;inedr ibjY. bl; heY q;ek ey AE yu s'`$enr ipzen t_k;lIn j;p;enr at*Nt p[&;bx;lI b*;itBr p[&;b \ p[er;cn; k;j kerez. itin im_su et;Y;m; e`;r j;tIYt;b;dI g,mui a;eNd;lenr puer;/; Ab' ek;Y;x; egneY;x; p[&Oit ibPlbIdelr p[it;t; pOep;Wk Ab' AixY;b;dI p*;nAixY;in iyin j;p;en r;sibh;ir bsu ehrMbl;l cIenr wbPlibk a;eNd;lenr j;tIYt;b;dI ent; sun \eYn 18661925 p[mUe%r a;x[Yd;t;r p[/;n ith;isk &Uimk; p;ln kerizeln. y;eh;k ibeXb AE p[qm yub;j eSbt;^edrek yue pr;ijt kerizl AixY;rE Ak s'kr j;tIr edx j;p;n y; r;jnIit sectn b;;il tq; &;rtIYedrek j;p;enr idek a;kO kret u kerizl p[c&;eb. in"seNdeh r;sibh;ir bsu\ esE&;ebE anup[;i,t heYizeln. prbtIRk;el e$;ikeY; heY e#izl &;rtIY Sb;/Int; a;eNd;lenr p[/;n pirc;ln; ekNd[. &;retr an*;n* ey ek;en; Sh;enr eceY b;'l; ael sxS] ibPlbIedr t_prt;r k;re, s;m[;j*b;dI ib[i$x x;skr; 1905 s;el b;'l; alek du&;eg ib& kr;r p[s;d WyN] kerizl ikNtu es$; s;qRk het p;erin b;;ilr j;tIYt;b;dI k*bt;r k;re,.

    ibpbI r;sibh;rI bsu j;p;en Aesizeln ik&;eb es sMpekR in&Rrey;g* tq* j;n; y;eCz n;. suSp&;eb ek;q;\ t; bi,Rt hYin. Amn ik ili%t ibpbIkmRk; i&ik esEenn a;ijY; en; ex;ir=t, AixY;r jY geNh\ itin AE ibWeY ek;n Ei^t pd;n kernin. /u j;n; y;Y pirkiLpt l;eh;er g;@Rs s;ehbek eb;m; ine=ep b*qR h\Y;r pr dӲt itin &;rt t*;egr is;Nt gh, kern. AE `$n;Y eg;rkOt r;sibh;ir bsur Ak;Nt anugt ixW* bsNt kum;r ibXb;esr f-;is hl p;;ebr ejel 1915 s;elr 11E em t;ire%r exW r;et. amr xhId bsNt/ @. em;hnk;lI ibXb;s. idI \ l;eh;r `$n;r mUl pirkLpk ey r;sibh;ir bsu izeln t; f-;s heY y;Y eg;rkOt ibpbI dInn;q tel;Y;err Ik;er;iet. puilx r;sibh;irek eg;r kr;r ec; c;l;Y ikNtu b*qR heY Ak m;ml; d;i%l ker y; idI WyN] m;ml; n;em pirict. bOi$x px;sn r;sibh;irek /ireY edb;r jn* el;&nIY a'ekr pur;r e`;W,; ker. y;r pirm;, 16000 pI. bsNt kum;err f-;sIr 48 `N$;r me/* r;sibh;ir j;p;enr eex* &;rt t*;g kern. j;p;en pl;tk r;sibh;ir sh a;erk jn ibpbIr n;m j;n; y;Y y;r abd;n\ a;edo km nY itin eher l;l . t-;r se^ ek;q;Y ik&;eb pircY heYizl es sMpekR tq* p;\Y; y;eCz n;. teb dujen j;p;en Ak s;eq j;h;ej ker Aes enem izeln ek;eb bNder eb;Z; y;Y. j;p;en a;s;r a;eg itin Ak eg;pn s&;Y e% kerezn Ak Ak ker aenekE bihRibeXb p;ileY y;\Y;r ec; krez t;edr me/* Akjn j;p;en y;\Y;r i$ik$ bhnk;rI\ izl AE b*i eher l;l ikn; si#k ker bl; n; egel\ seNdh dUrI&Ut hY n;.

     j;p;enr ek;eb bNder ep-oez ik&;eb t-;r; r;j/;nI e$;ikeY; pyRNt Aeln Ab' e$;ik\Sh a;j;bu xher abSh;n kern. aj;n; apirict e$;ikeY; xher Aes piSht h\Y;r ibWeY pb;sI &;rtIY ek b; k;r; t-;edr shey;igt; kerizeln ikNtu k;r; es sMpekR\ ikzu sN/;n p;\Y; y;eCz n;. A%;en AesE
t-;r; t-;edr k;yRm ab*;ht r;e%n eg;pen edexr mui a;eNd;lenr. 1915 s;elrE ne&r m;esr 7 t;ire% \eYen; xher j;p;n&;rt mt ibinmY anu;enr a;eY;jn kr; hel bOi$x srk;r sxS] ibpb pirkLpn;k;rI bsu Ab' a;erkjn ;/Int; a;eNd;lnk;rIek edxt*;eg j;p;n t*;egr jn* j;p;n srk;rek anuer;/ ker. j;p;n srk;r AE anuer;/ gh, ker i@esr m;esr 12 t;ire%r me/* j;p;n t*;egr inedRx edY. bsu perr idn et;Y;m; im_surr s;eq imilt heY t-;r s;h;y* p;qRn; kern. t%n j;p;en pl;tk cIn; j;tIYt;b;dI sun \eYenr m;/*em r;sibh;ir bsu et;Y;m;r s;eq s;=;_ kret s=m hn. sun \eYenr s;eq bsu ek;q;Y k%n ik&;eb pirict t;r\ s'b;d j;n; y;eCz n;. teb aS] srbr;h sMpikRt k;ej esn izeln ishSt. s;'h;E eqek itin sbt" &;ret &;rtIY ibpbIedr aS] srbr;h ker q;kebn. t-;r s;eq t_k;lIn &;rtIY edxI a;eNd;lnk;rI entObOeNdr sMpkR izl. esE sU] /er r;sibh;ir s;nEY;_ esn sMpekR &;el; ker j;netn sbt" aS] eg;l;b;edr ibWeY ey;g;ey;g r=; ker q;ket p;ern j;p;n a;gmenr pUebR. k;ejE j;p;en Aes\ itin s;nEY;_ esenr s;eq s;=;_ kerizeln bel men kr; eyet p;er.
     et;Y;m; im_su apirict &;rtIY ibpbI r;sibh;ir bsuek bueZiz. yt$uku s=m krb bel r ideln. et;Y;m; bsur a;ebden smit j;n;eln ikNtu s;h;y*shey;igt; ibWeY Sp ek;n /;r,; ideln n;. luikeY luikeY rEeln r;sibh;ir ibi& Sh;en.
     i@esr m;s Aes pl. AE m;esr pqm idnE sk;el e$;ikeY;Sh ixnjuku xher abiSht j;p;enr suib%*;t n;k;mur;EY; b*bs; pit;en inYimt %eredr Akjn Aeln iyin et;Y;m;r pirict. kq;Czel bleln et;Y;m; %ubE ibped peezn. j;p;n srk;r ktORk r;sibh;ir bsur j;p;n t*;egr a;edexr kq;\ bleln. AE kq; en et;Y;m;r & pit;enr m;ilk a;Eej; es;m; bleln br' a;m;r Sh;ni$ yid pzNd hY A%;en luikeY q;kel . AE kq;i$E et;Y;m;r k;en igeY tuleln %er y;r n;m n;k;mur; t;s;ku. et;Y;m; r;sibh;irr a;ebdn ex;n;r pr duiXcNt;Y peizeln ek;q;Y ik&;eb t;ek r=; kr; y;Y. n;k;mur;Y;r m;ilk y%n Y' AE a;Xb;s ideYezn es$; luef ineY esE idnE r;sibh;ir bsu \ eher l;l er ibpd eqek ;err pirkLpn; gOhIt hl. erEn;ns;k;Y et;Y;m;r b;iet s'Sh; egneY;x;r h;nsuek etiken; icd; ireY;ehE pmu% 20 jn imilt heln. sN/*;ebl; et;etn imY;j;ik r;sibh;irek ineY es%;en Aeln. b;Eer puilx g;iet iniXceNt `umueCz. r;] nY$;r idek et;Y;m;r a;l%;; g;eY cieY $uip ec;e%r inc pyRNt n;imeY j;p;in ebx /er r;;`err drj; epireY epzn idk ideY p;exr @" etr;\ et;\r b;i gileY b r;St;Y aep=;rt ixegm; suigY;m;r g;iet bsur; c;rjn ce bseln. c;rjn %ub dӲt ed;k;n beN/r i#k smeY piSht heln. abix;'x keYkjn %eredr p;x e`-eW pit;enr i&ter imileY egeln t-;r;. t-;edr edhr=I iheseb se^ izeln jued;
e%el;Y; E_suk;n imY;k\Y;.
      n;k;mur;Y ed;k;nb;ii$r epzen p;Xc;t* nkx;r Aki$ injRn &utue &bn izl AE b;ii$ es;m; pirb;r ekn;r pqm eqekE. es$;ek a*;$ily;r
(Atelier) iheseb b*bh;r kretn. es$;r itel ibpbI dujenr eg;pn a;xY iniXct hl. esE smY t-;edr jn* AE a;xYi$ izl aenk%;in inr;pd. eknn; pqmt" AE idk$;Y el;kjenr %ub Ak$; a;s; y;\Y; izl n;. itIYt" t_k;lIn e$;ikeY;r ixnjuku xher abiSht b*bs; pit;n iheseb n;k;mur;Y;r Aki$ a;Ntj;itRk pirict izl. ibedxIr; /u %erE izeln n; n;k;mur;Y; esel;n n;mk s'OitccR; ekNd ge \e#izl pit;enr e&ter. pit;enr k,R/;r a;Eej; es;m; \ S]I ek;eK; es;m; dujenE s'Oitmn b*itB iheseb ibexW pirict izeln j;p;en. esel;en t_k;lIn %*;itm;n ixLpI s;ihit*kr; jit izeln. ibedxIr;\ izeln eymn es;i&eYt r;ixY; eqek p;iley a;s; j;p;en a;xY gh,k;rI aN/ kib &;isil Aer;exnek;. k;ejE pit;ni$r s;eq ibedxIedr y;\Y;a;s; \ sMpkR q;k;r k;re, kmRrt kmRc;rIr;\ pqm idek /;r,; kret p;ernin ey &benr epzen dujn pl;tk &;rtIY bsb;s krezn. per abx* t; j;n;j;in h\Y;r a;&;s p;\Y; m;] stkR ek;eK; es;m; ed;k;enr sklek `$n; %uel beln Ab' s;b/;nt; abln kret anuer;/ kern. kmRc;rIr; t-;r kq;Y AtE mu hn ey aenekE ptI+; kern dujn &;rtIY edxepimkek jIbn ideY hel\ r=; krebn.            
     t;rpr\ sMp,R iniXcNt \ ;&;ibk&;eb k;l;itp;t kret p;ernin r;sibh;ir bsu \ eher l;l . ke= n; izl r;;`r S;n`r. xIet inmRm #;; et; izlE. tbu AEsb sh* ker A%;en eqekE t-;r; t-;edr kmRk; c;ileY eyet l;geln. t-;edr sbeceY `in heY e#izeln ek;eK; es;m;. itin t-;edr sb rkemr ed%&;l kretn. em;$;mui$ E'erij itin buZet \ blet p;retn. k;ejE &;W;gt ey;g;ey;eg etmn asuib/;Y pet hYin. t;rpr\ tq*;id a;d;n pd;enr e=e] dUt \ anub;dk iheseb es;m; pirb;err ej*kn*; et;ixek; es;m; shey;igt; krizl. es t%n Ccibd*;leYr z;]I.
     A%;en m;s itenk k;$;en;r pr aiShr eher l;l r;sibh;ir bsur s;eq r;g;r;ig ker n;k;mur;Y; eze a;emirk;r peq p;i jm;eln. r;sibh;ir Ak; heY egel\ A%;n eqek neln n;. Ak smY es;m; dMpitek itin b;b; m; bel se;/n kret l;geln. mx" a;r\ `in heY #eln AE pirb;err skl sds*edr s;eq. Ak;t heY imex egeln t-;edr me/*. Az;; t-;r pe= a;r ek;n pq e%;l; izl n; y; itin gh, kret p;retn. m;q;r \pr t%en; Zulez t-;r m;q;r mUl* iheseb ibi$x srk;err e`;iWt ibr;$ aer pur;r a;r j;p;en t-;r mUl r;jwnitk a;xYd;t; im_su et;Y;m; izeln es;m; pirb;err `intm jn. t-;r k;z;k;iz q;k; ibh;ir bsur jn*\ izl at*Nt jir eknn; ey ek;n ibpda;ped n;k;mur;Y; eqek t-;r b;iet a;xY l;& kr; shj izl. abx* et;Y;m; inYimt t-;r ixW* \ &edr s;eq ineY n;k;mur;Y;et a;s;y;\Y; kren. &;retr ;/Int;r ibWeY A%;enE t-;edr me/* a;el;cn; pirkLpn; ht. r;sibh;irr\ a;eg j;p;en a;gt an*;n* &;rtIy ;/Int; a;eNd;lenr s;eq jit ibpbI kmIRr;\ A%;en imilt hetn. fel em em n;k;mur; heY #l &;retr ;/Int; s'g;emr c;ilk;xir mUlekNd.

     A&;eb ikzuidn cel y;\Y;r pr j;p;n srk;r j;net p;reln ey pl;tk dujn &;rtIY sxS] ibpbIr Akjn ixnjuku xherr n;k;mur;Y;r a&*Nter a;teg;pn ker a;ezn. ktORp= t-;r gitibi/r \pr cr l;igeY ideln. ikNtu shs; t-;ek eg;r kr;r s;hs puilx px;sn ed%;et p;erin Akm;] r;jwnitk simit egneY;x;r p/;n p&;bx;lI ent; im_su et;Y;m; izeln t-;r mUl r=k bel. teb piriShit y%n em pitkUl heY #l r;sibh;irek r=; kr;r jn* s'ix skelE iciNtt heY peln. sbeceY ebix duiXcNt;gSt heY peln et;Y;m;. t-;ek luikeY r;%;r met; Aki$ b;i\ %-uej ed%;r jn*. fel a;r\ ej;r tdNt ker puilx t-;r abSh;n anusN/;en. ey%;enE g; !;k; ideY q;kun n; ekn puilx dӲt t; j;net eper h;ml; c;l;et q;ek. ikNtu t;r a;egE ai&+ r;sibh;ir es%;n eqek ser pen. AE&;eb e$;ikeY;et y%n luikeY q;k; at*Nt ibpdjnk heY #l t%n Akidn a;Eej; es;m; t-;ek j;p;in ep;x;ek s;ijeY e$;ikeY;r eqek dUer Eb;r;ik ejl;r Ak ejeledr g;em ineY y;n. ikNtu puilx erle$xenr kmRktR;r k;ez &;s; &;s; tq* s'gh ker /;r,; krl r;sibh;ir Eb;r;ik ejl;Y cel eyet p;ern. puilx zu$l esidek. AE s'b;d epeY a;Eej; es%;n eqek a;b;r pl;Yenr is;Nt ineln. Ab;r e$en n; ce $*;i &;; ker r;sibh;irek ineY ibi& pq `uer punr;Y e$;ikeY; Aes pirict Ak b;iet t-;ek luikeY r;e%n.
     ikNtu AE&;eb t-;ek a;r ktidn luikeY r;%; y;eb e&eb kelE ht;x heY peln t%n im_su et;Y;m; Aki$ pSt;b ideln es;m; pirb;err k;ez. a;r t;hl t-;edr b emeY et;ixek;r s;eq r;sibh;irr ibb;h ed\Y;. A z;; a;r ek;n pq e%;l; enE. akS;_ AE pSt;eb es;m; pirb;r mh;s'ke$ pen. eknn; A$; t-;r; ep\ kLpn; kernin. ainCz;setB\ t-;r; dujen r;ij heln. ikNtu kn*; et;ixek;ek kI&;eb bl; y;eb AE smeY es m;] Ccibd*;lY I,R heYez. t;r &ibW*_ s;men pe a;ez. A%nE ibb;h kr;$; ik i#k heb? tbu es;m; ek;eK; s;hs ker emeYek ibWYi$ %uel beln Ab' t;r mt;mt j;net c;n. 
     et;ixek; keYkidn smY ineY aenk e&ebiceNt jn et;Y;m;r pSt;eb r;ij hl ainCz;setB\. es t;r men;&;b b* ker bll" &;rtIY ibpbI edxepimk ibh;ir bsur p b;Stb;Yenr jn* a;m;ek t-;r k;ezE eyet d;\. abx* pirb;err ek ek sr;sir AE ibeYet a;pi j;ineYizeln. et;ixek;ek r;ij het ineW/ kerizeln. 
     es;m; pirb;err aenekE j;netn ey et;ixek; Akjnek pzNd kret; Ab' t;ek &;el;elegizl wkex;erE. t;r &;el;l;g;r m;nuWi$ n;k;mur;Y;r a&*NterE absh;n krizl. es n;k;mur; _suen n;mI pit&;b;n Ak t, ic]ixLpI. dujenr `int; Amn pyR;eY cel igeYizl ey _suen et;ixek;ek me@l ker keYki$ zib\ A-ekizl t;r. t;r me/* nu edhsbR ic]kmR\ izl. y; es;m; dMpir dOieg;cr hY Ab' t-;r; Aet pc asNtui pk;x kern. emeYek s;b/;n ker edn eyn _suenek a;r pxY n; ed\Y; hY. Ar p/;n k;r, _suenr izl Ak ki#n asu%y=;. a;Eej; es;m; Akidn _suenek t;r asue%r kq; Smr, kireY idel es A b;i eze cel y;Y. t;rper\ Akidn h#;_ ker piSht heY c; gl;Y et;ixk;ek ibeY kr;r EeCz pk;x kerizl. ikNtu t;et fl ikzuE hYin. `$n;r A%;enE sm;i `e$. ax* AE `$n; ey r;sibh;ir j;netn t; bl;E b;l*.
     n;k;mur; _suenr s;eq ibiCzt; et;ixek;ek eymn du"% ideYizl etmin r;sibh;irr s;eq ibeY h\Y;r pr ;&;ibk su%\ t;r jn* h;r;m heY igeyizl. t;r jIbn r;sibh;ir tq; &;retr ;/Int;r jn*E _sgR kret heYizl. 
     1918 s;elr em m;esr m;Z;m;iZ Akidn et;Y;m;r b;iet ibb;h anu;enr a;eY;jn kr; heYizl. r;sibh;irr bYs t%n 32 bzr. a;r et;ixek; t%n 20. ikNtu ibexW asuib/;r k;re, t;ir% ipizeY jul;E m;esr 9 t;ir% ibb;hanu;n sMp hY. ibeYr pr nbdMpit Xbr;leY inr;p;hInt;r k;re, bsb;s kret p;ernin. ibeYr pr br' t-;ek pirb;rsh n;n; j;Yg;Y keYkm;s aNtr aNtr b;s; bdl ker d;Mpt*jIbn aitb;iht kret hy. ibb;hpU,R jIbenr eceY ibb;eh;r jIbn t-;r jn* a;r\ ebix kkr heY \e#izl. eknn; t%n eY;er;ep pqm mh;yu clez. j;p;en r;sibh;rIr /u &;rtIY ibpbI ihesebE pirict izeln n; ibi$x srk;r t;ek x]p= j;mR;nIr cr iheseb\ pc;r kerizl Ab' im]xi iheseb j;p;enr srk;rek c;p peY;g krizl y ek;n p;eY t-;ek /ireY edY;r jn*. ikNtu srk;err pe= t-;ek eg;r kr; shj izl n;. teb hn* heY puilx b;r n;m bdl ker 17 b;r b;s; bdl kr;r kq; t-;r x;i ek;eK; es;m;r inejr el%; a;tjIbnIet p;\Y; y;Y.
     abx* ibeYr 4 m;s pr r;sibh;irr jIben h#;_ sUeyRr Zlk Aes pe. 1918 s;elr ne&r m;es dI`R 4 bzr 3 m;s pr yur pirsm;i `e$ &;sR;E x;iNt cui sMp;denr m/* ideY. r;sibh;irr pr eqek j;p;n srk;r eg;ir per;Y;n; tuel enY. itin AE pqm muir in"Xb;s efeln j;p;enr buek. a;r AE pqm es;m; dMpir ec;e%mue% iStr a;&;s ed%; edY. AE pqmb;r r;sibh;irr x;i ek;eK; es;m; &;rmu mn ineY ibh;ir bsu \ et;ixek;r gOh;leY pebx kern. esE gOh;lY Amn Ak apirict Sh;en g;zg;z;ilet a;Cz;idt izl ey b;Eerr a;el; es%;en pebx kr; eyn izl Aekb;erE iniW. aN/k;r s-*;ts-*;et apirsr esE gOeh pebx ker a;derr dul;lI bi,kkn*; et;ixek;r durbSh; ede% axӲbWR, kern ek;eK; es;m;. tq;ip ibh;ir bsur s'k$mY smeYr pdR; e;ln h\Y;Y a;XbSt heln be$ ikNtu et;ixek;r x;rIirk abSh; ede% qmek egeln. eknn; ttiden a;erk s'k$ jNm ineYez et;ixek;r buekr me/*. 
    aibr;m pl;Ynpr jIbenr p;l;bdl aiShrt; duiXcNt; inr;p;hInt;r i&tr ideY keYki$ m;s k;$;et heYez ibh;ir bsu \  et;ixek;ek. AE piriShitr me/*E r;sibh;ir ak;Nt&;eb jIibk; ajRn edxr ;/Int;r le=* k;j ker egezn. aS] \ aqR s'ghr t_pr;Y b*St smY k;i$eYezn yuigeYez dex a;eNd;lnrt stIqR ibpbIedrek apiremY s;hs epr,;. an*idk b;Eer y%n ;mI b*St t%n et;ixek; ezelemeY ineY nIreb ihmixm e%eYezn s's;err k;ej. mu% fue$ ek;nidn ;mIek k$U kq; bl; b; t-;r k;ejr sm;el;cn; kernin. br' nIreb x;r s;eq ibh;ir bsur kmRk;e smqRn Ab' shey;igt; ker egezn. At b /nI `err dul;lI heY\ aiShr ainiXct jIbnek h;ismu% emen ineYizeln. ibeYr pr 4 i$ m;s eg;pn bsb;esr fel t;r pe= sUeyRr mu% ed%; sbpr heY \e#in. fel dI`Ridn #;; \ jBrj;iret &uegezn. AE psgR eqek a;;Nt heYizeln dur;er;g* y=;er;eg. m;] 26 bzr bYes 1925 s;elr m;cR m;es dui$ sNt;n ab' ipY&;jn ;mIek ere% gR;el;ek y;]; kern. an*idek ibb;h;nu;enr 6 m;s per el;kmue% r$n;r m;/*em n;k;mur; _suen j;net p;ern ey et;ixek;r ibeY heYez n;k;mur;Y eg;pen a;ixt esE %*;itm;n &;rtIY ibpbI edxepimk r;sibh;ir bsur s;eq. an*idek _suen y=;er;eg dI`Ridn &ueg et;ixek;r Ak bzr a;eg 1924 s;el mOtu* br, kern.     
    et;ixek;r AE apt*;ixt mOtu* eb;m; es;m; dMpir jIben akq* ex;k beY a;en. jnnI iheseb ek;eK; es;m;r Akb;r men heYez emeYek eyn eCz;Y inejr h;et jel &;iseY ideln icrter. ikNtu per t; pirbitRt hY r;sibh;irr mue% et;ixek; sMpekR t-;r menr anu&Uit j;net eper.
    r;sibh;ir bsu kI pc m;nisk a;`;t epeYezn t; hYet; itin z;; a;r ek anu&b kret p;ernin es smY. eknn; et;ixek; /u t-;r ipYtm; sh/imR,I izeln n; izeln Ak;/;er t-;r epr &;gI/;r Ak;Nt sicb. ipYtm; S]Ir mOtu*r pr buekr me/* inrN/ in"s^t; ineY\ edexr jn* itin aibr;m k;j ker egezn. t-;r m;tOh;r; dui$ sNt;n ezel m;s;ihed t%n m;/*imk ibd*;leYr ctuqR ex,Ir z;] \ emeY et_suk; itIY ex,Ir z;]I. t;r; es;m; dMpir k;ez m;nuW het q;ek. pit ribb;r t-;edr s;eq ineY r;sibh;irr b;iet eyetn ek;eK; es;m;. xt b*Stt;r me/*\ itin sNt;nedr s;eq s;=;_ kr;r jn* aep=; kretn. inejr h;et r;; ker %;\Y;etn. Akidn ek;eK; es;m; bsuek anuer;/ kreln a;b;r ntun ker s's;r ge et;l;r jn*. r;sibh;irr s;eq ibeYr jn* a;ghI izeln keYkjn mihl;. t-;edr me/* s;Nt `err suixi=t n;rI\ izeln. ikNtu x;ir kq; en h;seln itin. bleln AE bYes ntun ek;n n;rIek gh, kr; a;m;r jn* ebdn;d;Yk. eknn; et;ixek;r pit a;m;r ey anu&Uit t; an* n;rIr pit anup heb Amni$ &;ib n;. t;z;; a;pn;edr met; m; b;b;ek t*;g ker an*jnek a;x; kir n;. a;m;r inejr xrIr m;tO&Uimr jn* _sigRt p;,$; inejr bel men kir n; esE e=e] /um;] b-;c;r abln iheseb punr;Y ibeY kr;r EeCz enE.
     AE r en ek;eK; es;m; axӲjel is heY gRt; et;ixek;r eex men men bleln kI eso&;g* et;ixek;r Amn ;mI epeYizl es a;r ek;nidn itin A pse^ r;sibh;irek ikzu belnin. bsu\ gRt; et;ixek;r SOit ibSOt hnin mOtu* pyRNt. et;ixek;\ ey pUebRr SOit ibSOt heY r;sibh;irek sit*E hdY ideY anu&b kerizeln &;el;b;set eperizeln t;r pm;, ideYezn ;mIek. esE kq; j;n; y;Y r;sibh;irr ili%t \ pi]k;Nter pk;ixt Ak SOitkq;Y. m;] 7
/8 bzerr Lp;Yu d;Mpt* jIben t-;r; ey su%I izeln t; Ik;r kerezn bsu t-;r el%;Y. mOtu* pyRNt es;m; pirb;err s;eq t-;r sMpkR izl aibiCz. S]Ir mOtu*r perr bzr 1926 s;el; n;k;mur;Y;r itel Aki$ ke= er$uerN$ pitit ker es%;en &;rtIY %;b;r tq; EiY;n k;irr pcln kern. y; a;j\ c;lu reYez Ab' t-;r n;m Sirt heCz.
     mh;ibpbI r;sibh;ir bsu j;p;n \ &;ret in"seNdeh x;&;jn %*;itm;n ith;isk b*itB. ikNtu t-;r n;emr s;eq jit S]I et;ixek; b; es;m; pirb;err kq; &;rtIYr; g&Ir&;eb j;enn bel men hY n;. Akjn i&nedxI ibpbI edxepimekr a;jIbn l;ilt p b;Stb;Yenr jn* Akjn ibedxI n;rIr t, jIbn _sgR kr;r ey mh;n Eith;s et;ixek; es;m; sOi ker egezn t;r kt%;in mUl*;Yn heYez es$; Aki$ a;ht px heY a;ez &;retr ;/Int; ajRenr 50 bzr per\. ;/In &;rt ik pd;n kerez ek;n sMm;n n;k;mur;Y;r es;m; pirb;err bsur pit t-;edr shmimRt;r jn*? &;rtIy ;/Int; s'g;emr a;nek pBilt ker ere%izl itIY mh;yu pyRNt AE n;k;mur;Y;pr;/In &;retr amUl* muir epr s;eq inejek Ak;t ker ideY. t; ik Sr, kern a;jekr &;retr &;g*ib/;t;r; ? eb;/ hY n;.                          

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