ntunetB sSt;Y A%n\ j;p;n xIeWR
pbIr ibk;x srk;r

      sm;ej m;nueWr jIbny;pnek kt shjtr a;r sSt; kr; eyet p;er p,*s;mgI AE pitey;gIt;Y j;p;n eb;/kir ibeXb xIWRSh;en abSh;n krez. m;] edx bzerr me/* pXc;_pd kOiW i&ik Aki$ edx kI&;eb y;iN]k ae$;emxenr xIWRcU;Y a;er;h, krl A$; &;bel ibSeYr sIm; q;ekn;. emEj yueg 18681912 aqR;_ p;Y Akx bzr a;eg j;p;n izl AixY;r pqm ixeLp;t Aki$ edx. j;p;enr j;Eb;_su tq; bOh_r b;i,j* pit;nel; eymn im_suibix im_suE suimet;em; en;mur; m;_suixt; k;\Y;s*;ik h*;&I E;$I-j p&Oitr Eith;s l=* kir ab;k n; heY p;r; y;Yn;. &;bet ab;k l;eg ibeXbr me/* sbeceY ebix g;i pStk;rI pit;n reYez j;p;enE &;rI ixLpE /u nY wbd*uitk gOhsr;m ibm;nbhr j;h;j er;eb;$ Amn ik a;emirk;r n;s; ne&;y;nel;r Ein yN];id pyRNt im_suibix k;\Y;s;ik k;irgir pit;nel; wtrI krez. yue b*bht sb rkemr smry;n aS]xS] j;p;n inejE wtrI krt itIY ibXbyu pubR pyRNt. eY;er;pek anusr, ker s;m;j*b;dI heY #;r pr r;ixY; Ab' cInek yue h;ireY &;rtsh AixY;r an*;n* eXbt;^edr pr;/In Sb;/Inect; j;itedrek muiyue u kerizl j;p;n.
     j;p;enr reYez eymn Aki$ aitIY Eink s'SkOit etmin a;/uink /*;n/;r,;Y es A%n m;S$;r. eymn /n ait s;Mpitk keYki$ pirbtRn. e$xen e$xen i$ik$ e&i' emixn c;lur pr 5
/6 bzr a;eg eme$; erl p;t;l erl e$xnel;et biseYez ai&nb Aki$ SbY'iY i$ik$prI=; emixn b; ae$;emi$k i$ik$ egE$. kiMp$;r Ab' esNsryu AE emixen i$ik$ !uikeY idel ec;e%r inimeW eck heY a;erk mu% ideY ebireY a;sez. ek;n ek;n emixenr m;q; At &;el; ey Ak muhuetR pYs;r ey;gibeY;g ker p;\n;ed\n;r ihesb ker ideCz. aifsg;mI sk;lsN/*; AE duE smeY l= l= el;k ek;nrkm j$l; z;;E dӳt p;r heY y;eCz smY mt cet p;rez e$n. `ir k-;$; anuy;YI piti$ e$n A%;en smY r=; kr; cel. AE emixni$ wtrI kerez a;ilk ait =ud Aki$ emixn;rI pStk;rI pit;n. a;j y; yug;Ntk;rI Ak `$n;. /u t;E nY m;gt clez Aek a;r\ a;/uink a;r\ b*bh;irk Ab' a;r\ shjtr ker et;l;r pec;. eymn AE emixenE Ak;/;er i$ik$ eymn pebx kr;en; y;eCz a;b;r /um;] i$ik$ Aki$ =ud min$er
ez-;Y;elE bN/ kp;$ %uel y;eCz.  i$ik$ek bl; heCz suEk; b; aitir. 
    a;emirk;Y ;ibt kni&ineYN$ e$;r ey%;en wdniNdn jIben b*bh;irk Amn ikzu enE y; ibi hYn;. sbRSterr m;nueWr k;ez Ar jnipYt; tue^. AE ed;k;nel; A%n xhr ngr g;m dIp;l z;ieY p;h;er \per\ ibStOit l;& kerez. bzer ek;n zi$ enE 24 `N$; e%;l;.k;ejE r;t iberet ekn;k;$;r jn*
%ubE suib/;jnk. b;i,ij*k xhr eqek ker xhrtlI sbR] Ak;i,k e$;r reYez. Eitme/* sbeceY jnipY ese&n Eele&n e$;ri$ s;r;edex 10000 ed;k;n Sh;penr kOittB ajRn kerez. A%n AEsb ed;k;en Ai$Am ae$;emi$k e$l;r emixn b*;'k k,R;r Sh;pn kr; heYez. ez;| Ak$; emixn eY%;en 24 `N$;r eyek;n smeY $;k; et;l; sb k*xk;e@Rr m;/*em. reYez ipepE@ a;Ntj;itRk e$ilef;n k;@R ekn;r anup emixn. Ab' sMpit yu heYez dui$ kni&ineYN$ e$;r  el; sn Ab' AAmipAmA ep;$ b Sh;penr d;hr,. sk;l 11$; eqek ibekl 4$; pyRNt  A%;en ici# efl; y;eb. Aki$ ed;k;enr mihl; kmRc;rIek ijeg*s krl;m A$; /u /u bs;en; n;ik l;& a;ez ikzu? &dmihl; bleln n;. /uE s;i&Rs. a;mr; ep;$;l i@p;$RemN$ eqek Ak pYs;\ kimxn iniCzn;. br' %ir;r y;et a;r\ Ak /;p suey;g ab' suib/; shejl;& kr;et p;ern A$; etmn Aki$ s;i&Rs m;] eyehtu esb;E b*bs;r p/;n l=. esb; a;r b*bs; sm;Ntr;l j;p;nI sm;ej. eymn b;s; bdl kr;r smY inej k ker m;l bhn krebn ekn ihK;ix n;mk pirbhn ek;Mp;nIr \pr d;iYtB eze idelE hl. aityetr s;eq a;pn;r m;l;m;l bhn krt" a;pn;r inedRxmt yq;Sh;en Sh;pn ker edeb kmRc;rIr;. m;l;m;l p;#;ebn edxibedex Ab' ihm;iYt %;d*s;mgI sb sb t;kuikibn tq; kuirY;r s;i&Resr m;/*em aitdӳt Ab' inr;p;sh. g;i p;kR kr;r j;Yg; A%n ibx;l ibx;l &benr z;ed kr; heCz. SbY'iY ilfe$ ker g;i \per e$en et;l; hY. erl e$xnel;r m;i$r nIec A%n wtrI kr; heCz Aks;eq h;j;r h;j;r s;Eekl p;ikR' kr;r Sh;n. abx* 24 `N$;r jn* 100 EeYn m;isk k;@R iken inel 15001800 EeYn. 
   kt rkm ijinsp] ey a;jk;l j;p;en shjtr b*bh;er;pey;gI heY e#ez t; t;ilk; krel km l; heb n;. keYji$ tbu bliz kiMp$;r yu r;Es kuk;r \Y;ix' emixn p;nIY isg;er$sh n;n; pe,*r e&i' emixn p;h;ebenj^el e$enmr i&ter pyRNt a;ez fuij ifl kepR;erxenrAr \Y;n$;Em k;ej l*Nsf*;xl;E$yu k*;emr; et;ixb;r j;rNs ipi@A p;esR;n;l i@ij$;l A*;isse$Ns es;in kepR;erxenr isi@ i@Sk Ami@ imin i@Sk epY;r isi@\eY;km*;n epY*;r a;Eeb; ep$ er;b;$ eyel; bYSk n;girekr esb;xӳs;r k;ej aicerE b*bht heb eh;; em;$r kepR;erxenr a;ism& buim;n m;nb;kOitr er;eb;$ y; SbicNtk Ab' adUr &ibW*et b*bht heb sU= gebW,; eqek ker &;rI yN]p;it s'ey;jn Sh;n;Ntr h;sp;t;el sU=;itsU= aeS];pc;err e=e] e$;eY;$; em;$r ek;Mp;nIr g;ir irs;Eik' esN$;r i@i&i@ epY;r p;tl; Sfi$k pdR;r p;jm; edY;l i$i& kiMp$;r yu m*;s;j ecY;r ekiseY;r Eelki$k $;e&lkk s;ineY;r @;Eesl b*;$;rIyu $uqb;x p&Oit. Amnik eysb ek;Mp;nIr n;m scr;cr ex;n; y;Yn; n;s;r gebW,;ekeNdr abd;n r;%ez 1998 s;el eSps x;$l i@sek;&;irr mUl \jn 4 $n km;en;r kOittB ajRn kerez a;ilk fukuE ejl;r Aki$ =ud emixn;ir pStk;rI ek;Mp;nI m;_sur; emixn;ior kepR;erxn SbinimRt Aki$ yN] Sh;pn ker ideY. anup dUrbtIR a;ikt;ejl;r a;erki$ es;in Ab' An AEcekr eyoq pirkLpn;y pSt h;Ee@ifenxn k;emr; 1990 s;elr idek n;s;r dOi a;kWR, ker. ibeXb aE pqm j;p;enr t;k;r; $Y Aki$ e%ln; pStk;rI ek;Mp;nI ;bn kerez b;il^uY;l n;em Aki$ yN] y; kukuerr &;W; Ab' anu&Uit anub;d ker idet s=m. 2002 s;el m;ikRn yur;er
Ig Nobel prize ajRn kerez. AE purSk;r pd;n ker q;ekn h;&R;@R ibXbibd*;lY Ab' s*;s; Eni$i$$ ab e$ken;lij Ama;Ei$r ix=;ibdr;. a;r keYk bzerr me/* Aes y;eb ecouk xir s;h;ey* c;ilt ilinY;r em;$;r e$n y;r git heb `N$;Y 500 ik . im. ibd*u_ z;;\ p;in md b;Yuxic;ilt em;$r g;ir k;j clez. Ak/duE a;snibix kmep b; imin k;r mx" jnipYt; ajRn krez. eh;; em;$r ek;Mp;nI sMpit b;j;er ezeez Eelki$k imin b;Ek. Amin a;r\ kt ik t;z;; ibpb heYez em;b;El ef;n Ab' CCD= charge coupled device) k*;emr; ideY. i@ij$;l k*;emr; mui& k*;emr; sSt; k;l;ripN$;r i@ij$;l k*;emr; ipN$;r k;l;r kipY;er et; b;j;r zYl;p. aitsMpit em;b;El ef;en s'yu heYez isisi@ k*;emr; fel zib tuel EN$;rene$r m;/*em s;eq s;eq epr, kr; shj heCz Aes egez i$i& e@;r ef;n i&i@\ef;n AE em;b;El e$ils;i&Rs adr &ibW*et m;nueWr jIbny;];ek a;r\ kt rkm&;eb ey shjtr ker tuleb es$;E ibSeYr s;eq ed%; y;eb. 
em; kq; m;ekRe$ pqm ed%;Y ih$  kret p;er AE a;Ei@Y;p,* pSet Ab' kt d;em p,* ibi kr; y;Y AE  pirkLpn;r e=e] j;p;enr tuln; enE. at*Nt b*Ybl edx j;p;en A%n90 EeYnxp 100 EeYnxp \ 1000 EeYnxp idn idn ebe celez. AEsb ed;k;en wdniNdn jIben b*bht &;el; &;el; b p,*s;mgI per; mUel* ibi heCz. y; a&;bnIY teb dӳt ae$;emxn pb,t; eyn j;p;en xmjIbI m;nueWr k;jek h;s krez etmin cIn ek;irY; m;leYixY; q;E EeNd;enixY; eqek a;md;nIkOt aitir sSt; pe,*r ej;Y;er j;p;enr i&ter pSt b; s;mgIr b;j;r\ s'kuict heCz.
e$;ik\ 27.8.03

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