j;p;n b;'l; s;'SkOitk ibinmeYr 100 bzr pUitR
dy;pn n; h\Y;r k;r, ik abehl; n;ik ibSmr, ?

pbIr ibk;x srk;r
el%k j;p;nb;'l; s'Sq;r btRm;n ecY;rm*;n Ab' b;'l;edx s;'b;idkel%k ef;r;m
j;p;enr p[;n p[it;t; s;/;r, sMp;dk.

 &Uimk; "
   a;mr; aenekE hYt b; j;inn; AE bzrE j;p;n b; b;'l; aelr s;'SkOitk ibinmeYr 100 bzr clez. bWRi$ek Sr, kr;r jn* ek;n pk;r ibexW ed*;g_sb a;eY;jn kr; hYin j;p;en &;ret Ab' b;'l;edex. y; kr;r kq; izl sm;jnk&;eb j;p;enrE. a;/uinkk;el dOx*t" s'SkOit \ ix=; e=e] At g&Ir Ab' ibStOt p;rSpirk icNt;&;bn; em/; dxRn Ab' j;n;j;inr a;d;npd;n j;p;nIedr s;eq a;r ek;n j;itr `e$in. kU$wnitk sMpkR j;p;enr s;eq s;r;ibeXbr b edexr s;eq edx bzr a;eg eqekE reYez ikN\ AixY;r k* bj;Y aqb; p;c*b;dek smuNnt r;%;r epi=et ey s;'SkOitk a;eNd;ln ge e#izl duE aelr pqm s;irr icNt;xIl b*iedr me/* t;r nijr a;r ek;q;\ enE. AE s;'SkOitk sMpekRr aNtRpedex eXbt;^ s;m;j*b;dek AixY; eqek t;ieY a;NtjR;itkt;b;d pit; kr;r le=* Sb;edixk a;eNd;lenr /;r;\ pbhm;n izl. pqm ibXbyuer a;eg eqek idBtIY ibXbyue j;p;enr pr;jY pyRNt AE /;r; s;'SkOitk ibinmeYr p;x;p;ix sm;n&;eb beY celizl. in"seNdeh AE 100 bzerr `$n;bl sudI`R smY Aki$ egoreb;Bl Eith;s sOir epzen Sb&;bt"E epr,; \ xi yuigeYez. ey Eith;s AE duE aelr nutn \ an;gt pjenr jn*E /u nY smg AixY;r ai/b;sIedr jn*E Aki$ b*itm/mIR `$n; &ibW*et AigeY cl;r aki$ a;x;b*k d;hr,\ be$. eknn; ey;g;ey;egr b*bSh;smO btRm;n a;/;inkk;el\ AE rkm Aki$ 100 bzr sOi heb n; t; bl;E b;l*.

AixY;r b;Stbt; " 

    ekn asb t;r aenk k;r, ibd*m;n. p/;n dui$ k;r, A%;en Spt"E l=,IY. Ak entOetBr s'k$. duE d;r s'SkOitesbI m;nb wtirr k;irgerr pc a&;b. ibXbr;jnIitr p&;eb AixY;r a;ilk r;jnIit sm;j aqRnIit \
/mIRY e=e] ey ji$l sms*; \ s'k$mY piriSqr sOi heYez t;r eqek suSq xix;lI entOtB \ s'SkOitesbIr jnl;& heCz n;. AE abSq; dB;r; a;;Nt j;p;n &;rt tq; b;'l; al\ sutIb&;eb. eY;er;pIY ixLp ibpb m;ikRnI kiMp$;r ibpb tq; a;Ei$ (Information Tecnology) ibXb;Ynek tr;iNbt krez i#kE ibi& beYsI pjenr me/* wbpibk a;gh jineYez t;\ st* teb es$; kt%;in sOixIlt; ntun a;ib:k;r ;bn Ab' aqRwnitk smOir e=e] p&;b r;%et p;rez AE &;bn; abx*E px;tIt nY. A$; ik aSbIk;r y;eb ey AE nY; kiMp$;ribpb i@ij$;l pyui m;ikRnIeY;er;pIYj;p;nIek;rIY yN]p;itr tq;kiqt Akeci$Y; mub;j;rI b;i,j*ekE sMps;irt krezn;? AixY;r smSt aqR ik esE idekE /;ibt heCz n;? AixY;r ai/k;'x anut edx ey aqR wbedixk mud; iheseb a;Y ker t;r ai/k;'x sb ixeLp;t edexE cel y;eCz. a;r tq;kiqt aqRwnitk Yn kOiWr Yn abk;#;em; Yn inr=rt; dUrIkr, n;rI sms*; Ab' s;Mpitkk;elr sN];sb;d dUrIkre, ey ibpul aqRs;h;y* aS]s;h;y* Ab' ODA gt 50 bzr /er a;sez edxel; eqek essb s;h;ey*r ae/RkE ikN\ AE dird edxel;r e%e$ %;\Y; m;nueWr pirxemr $;k;. t;edr $;k; ineY inejedr b*igt su%s;CzNd* \ &ibW*_ b'x/redr jn* aqRwnitk inr;p; ge tulez y;r; t;r;E ibi$xsO a;ml; r;jnIitk YnkmIR Ab' b*bs;YIsb yN]s&*t;r s;m;j*b;dI r;Ӈel;r mddpu pitini/. Ar; nY; s;m;j*b;dIedr d;l;l Ink a;r &;t ey;g;en; dird e%e$ %;\Y; xmjIbI m;nueWr; t;edr en;'r; r;jnIitr crm ixk;r. gt 50 bzerr Eith;s ik t;E tuel /rezn; a;m;edr s;men?

AixY;E agdUt
"
 

    blet idB/; ek;q;Y AE Eelk$ink pyui in&Rr s;m;j*b;dIedr rbINdn;q as&* belizeln. eknn; Ar; h;j;r h;j;r bzr p;rspirk h;n;h;in /WRk;m lu$tr;j b,RwbWm* Ab' r;j*eg;I d%l kr;r ku_ist yue ilPt izl. m;nuW ht*;r aS] b;dyu h;itY;r wtrI kerez Ar;E. Ar; s&* heYez a;/uink heYez Ab' sebR;pir s;m;j*b;dI h\Y;r l;&b;n pq a;ib:k;r
kerez pkOtpe= AixY;Y Aes. p;ec*r smO agsrm;n icNt;xIlt; Ab' a;NtjR;itkt;b;d y; ineY a;emirk; \ eY;er;p injSb ex;g;enr ai/k;rI bel j;ihr krez Ar jn ikNtu eY;er;ep hYin. E(EU) Ar met; ey skl a;ilkt;b;d jn ineYez a;g;mIet jn eneb Ar\ _s AE AixY;b;sIr dxRn eqek. yuer /;r,; prr;j* d%lnIit Aesez an*mh;edexr sm;j eqek. b;d b*bht aS] ter;Y;lb;ij AixY;r abx*E nY. Ael; bihRibeXbr. pht*; a;r m;nuW ht*; Ak ijins nY. aNttpe= AixY;r di=,;elr p-;c h;j;r bzr p;cIn isnu s&*t;Y a;mr; ik edi%. smSt s&*t;el;r me/* Akm;] isnu s&*t;E b*itm ey%;en a;j\ ek;n /;tb aS] b; h;itY;r %-uej p;\Y; y;Yin. r;j;r aiSttBbhnk;rI ek;n pm;, a;ib:kOt hYin. eknn; r;j;E izln; sm;ej. r;j;r pirbetR izl Akjn p/;n puer;iht iyin sm;jek inYN], kretn. a;r m;ikRnI b; eY;er;pIY ngrs&*t; Sh;pt*indxRn y; a;jek a;mr; ed%iz t;r mUli&iE et; ep;iqt a;ez isnu s&*t;r ngr k;#;em;r me/*. meh;e;d;er; hr; p&Oit p;cIn ngrekE i&i ker ge e#ez ngrs&*t;. A a;r ntun ikzu nY. mh;&;retr yue a;mr; ey tIr/nuekr sN/;n p;E es wbidk s&*t;r d;n. aqR;_ a;yRedr. bihr;gtedr dB;r;E n;n;ib/ a;egY;S] AixY;Y !uek pe. b,R ex,I et; AedrE sOi. aqR;_ b;Eerr. t;rpr\ wbidk s&*t;r yueg m;nuW x;iNtet izl. A%n ik esE x;iNt a;ez a;m;edr AE ibx;l AixY;r ek;q;\? ekn enE? A$; e&eb ed%;r smY Aesez. eknn; ibedxIr;E blez 21 xtk AixY;b;sIr jn*. gt 4x bzr /er et; Ar; AixY;ek ex;W, kerez. A%n ntun ech;r; ineY a;erkb;r ex;W, kr; y;Y ikn; a;egY;eS]r pirbetR pyuir m;/*em AE piY;E clez.

s;m;j*b;dI WyN] "

    ibeXbr Eith;es AixY;r d;nabd;n sbeceY ebix Ab' anSbIk;yR. ikN\ km s'%*k eY;er;pIYr;E A$; SbIk;r kerez Ab' krez. Ab' y;r; atIet kerez t;edr A%n a;r Sr, kr; hYn; etmn ker a;r A%n y;r; krez srk;rI smqRnpu bj;itk b;i,j* pit;nel;r c;ep t;edr df;rf; hb;r ey;g;. sMpit ej;h;nsb;gR /ir]I semlen pirebxb;dI \ bj;itk Sb;qR;eNbWI ent;edr me/* ey tkRyu hl dxidnb*;pI A$; t;r b pm;, nY? AixY; eqek ;ibt xUn*b;d ej*;itW+;n ej*;itRib+;n ctRuebd tkRx;S] is;Nt x;iNt a;eNd;ln nIitx;S] /mR s'%*;tB dxRn s;iht* mh;k;b* n;$*x;S] s^Itx;S] a/*;tBb;d a;YRuebd el;ks;iht* wb+;ink a;ib:k;r ;bn Sk;Eep;ribd*; Ab' pkOit s'r=,b;d kI ge e#in A%;en? ek;n$; isLkpq heY smudpq heY bihRibeXb y;Yin? AEel;E et; a;j ibXbsMpd. AE egorbmY AE smO s&*t;r Eith;s a;jekr pjn &uel y;eCz. sMps;irt heCzn; AEel; ineY gebW,;r piri/. heCzn; t;r aenk k;r, ibd*m;n. a;b;r esE k;r, p;Xc;t*s;m;j*b;dIedrE sudI`R s;men iY;pitiY; Ab' WyeN]r fsl. a;mr; Akq; SbIk;r kirn; ey p;Xc;t* dxRn \ ib+;n a;m;edr ikzu edYin b; pk;r kerin. kerez yb apk;r$;E ebix. sbeceY ebix =it kerez a;m;edr /mRek r;jnIitr h;itY;r iheseb b*bh;r ker y; b;;lI j;itek du&;g kerez A%n k;xIrek ekNd ker p;;bek a;l;d; kret AE /mIRY p&;bE k;j krez. AE /mRek s;m;j*b;dI ibi$xr; t;edr x;snt;iN]k pitr exW piY; ihesebE ineYizl. ikN\ exW r=; hYin. fel &;rtbWRek i]/;ib& ker ideY p;l;et heYez. s;ehbr; p;ileYez i#kE ikN\ t;edr apk;rI a;ml;tN] Ab' /mR in&Rr r;jwnitk /;r; ere% egez y; per;=&;eb gt 50 bzr /erE smg &;rtIY pmh;edx AixY;r t Ab' anut ai/b;sIedr Sb;&;ibk jIbny;penr =mt; sOjnxIlt; m;nisk smOiek ke#;r&;eb inYN], krez. AE inYN], &;^;r ec;Y b a;eNd;ln heYez b r=Y heYez bp;, _sgIRt heYez kt m;eYr buk %;il heYez kt em/; xm aqR ibn heYez ibinmeY ek;n ek;n aelr Sb;/Int; Aesez ikN\ keYk bzerr b*b/;en sb &ul heYez ey m;q; e# d-;ieYizl a;b;r h-;$uet mu% -ejez. AE j`n* xix;lI pCz a;ml;tN] AixY;r skl pjenr wnitkc;iri]k Sb;&;ibk ,;blIek /B's ker ideCz. AE a;ml;teN]r epzen es-e$ a;ez Sb;qR;enBWI aixi=t a/Rixi=t Ab' sN];sI r;jnIitkr; y;r; el;k ed%;en; r;i]j;g; phrIr ebx /er a;ez a;r epzenr aNdrmhel r;j; iheseb sb a`$n c;ileY y;eCz a;ml;r; bj;itk pit;nel;r t-;ebd;r b*bs;YIr;. bE pirt;epr ibWY heCz ey t;edr simlIt en;'r; r;jnIitr ixk;r a;j mu +;nccR;r ekNd ibd*;lY ibXbibd*;lY gebW,;ekNdӇel; pyRNt. AE du"%jnk hybrl abSh; eqek eY%;en ib+;n \ pyui a;m;edrek ;r kr;r kq; t; ik krez? int*ntun kiMp$;r EN$;ren$ b;i,j* i@ij$;l i@&;Esel;r Yn xt;Ipuren; p;quer a;ml;teN]r acl;Ytnek &;^et p;rez ex,Igt sm;jb*bSh;r durtB \ b*b/;enr is-iel;ek h;s kret eperez n;ik em/; jn;en;r pirebx ge tulet sm;j inYN]kedr p&;ibt kret eperez ikzuE kret p;erin. br' em/;bIedr b;EerE cel eyet b;/* krez. AE nb* pyuir eSpsxIp$; kitpY Ccex,Ir pirb;rbegRr dB;r; inYiN]t heY e&es a;ez agi,t dird m;nuW tq; e%e$ %;\Y; ximk ed;rxUn* kOWk ejel t-;tI k;m;rkuem;r a;r ebk;r pjenr m;q;r pr. `er `er pyuir a;xIbR;d y;Yin y;eb\n; At shej. yt=, pyRNt a;mr; a;m;edr inejedr apht egorebr idek n; t;k;eCz h;r;en; m;niskxi sebR;pir a;tibXb;s ifer n; p;eCz?

Eith;esr abm;nn; "

    A bzr sit*E per;ii%t 100 bzerr s;'SkOitk Eith;s pyR;el;cn; Ak$; cm_k;r suey;g Aesizl. AE sMpekRr sUcn; kerizeln j;p;nI mnIWI nms* pitixLpI ix=; etnixn \k;kur; (18621913) 1902 s;el cIn heY &;rt sfr k;el. t%n itin dx m;s klk;t;Y izeln. #;kur pirb;err ixLpI abnINdn;q ggenNdn;q per rbINdn;q #;kuerr s;eq `in heYizeln. t-;r AixY; Ak (Aisa is One) AE mtb;edr s;eq Ak;t e`;W,; kerizeln rib #;kur. itin pirict hn eb^l er-ens-;esr ib%*;tsb pit buijIbIedr s;eq. Sb;mI ibebk;nNdr s;eq\ t-;r g&Ir s%*t; ge e#. &;ret besE itin id a;Ei@eYls ab id ES$ n;mk t-;r ib%*;t gNhi$r p;uilip ile%izeln. j;p;en ifer Aes x;iNtinektenr a;xem p;i#eYizeln t-;r z;] \ ixW* ib%*;t j;p;nI ic]ixLpI eY;ek;EY;m;  t;Ek;n sunex; ijxd; k;nj;n ixem;mur;ek. AE hl s;'SkOitk ibinmeYr sub,R sUcn;. 1912 s;el etnixn punr;Y klk;t; m, kern. rbINdn;q Sb;mIjIek j;p;en a;mN], j;n;n. rbINdn;q etnixenr mOt*ur itn bzr pr 1916 s;el sbRpqm j;p;n sfr kern. keYk m;s izeln j;p;en. AixY;r pqm en;ebl x;iNt ajRenr fel t-;r myR;d; \ jnipYt; izl pbRt sm;n. ibpul&;eb s'bi/Rt heYizeln itin. t_k;lIn p/;nmN]I k;N$ \kum; e$;ik\ ibXbibd*;leYr a;c;yR EY;m;k;\Y;sh s;r; edexr b;`; b;`; pit a/*;pk buijIbI r;jniItk el%k s;ihit*k s;'b;idk ic]ixLpI kN#ixLpI /mIRY ent;sh sbRem;$ p;Y 300 jn smebt heYizeln esE a&*qRn; anu;en. t_k;lIn suib%*;t sm;j s'Sk;rkixLppit b*;rn AEEic ixbus;\Y; ktOk t-;r a;suk;EY;m; b;s&ben a;miN]t heYizeln rbINdn;q. Ak j-;derl a&*qRn; s&;r a;eY;jn kr; heYizl. wdink a;s;ih ixun pi]k;r m;ilk eYih mur;EY;m; t-;r b;s&ben j;p;nI ith*b;hI c;anu;enr m;/*em rib #;kurek br, kerizeln. e$;ikeY; ibXbibd*;lYsh ibi& ix=; pit;en bOt; kerizeln. j;p;nI mihl; mh;ibd*;leYr pit;t; ix=;ibd ijnen; n;es ktOk a;miN]t heY n;g;en; ejl;r k;Ej;\Y; ael abiSht mihl; mh;ibd*;leYr ix=;p;^en Ak;i/k bOt; ideY a;el;n sOi kerizeln. piti$ p]pi]k; fl;\ ker AEsb anu;n Ab' rbINdn;eqr kmRsUcIr sic] s'b;d pk;x kerizl. ikzuidn ixLpI t;ERk;enr \eYen; xherr b;s&ben q;k;r pr b;kI smY$; izeln bNdrngrI eY;ek;h;m;r /n;!* b*i b*bs;YI Ab' ixLpkl;r pOep;Wk et;imt;er; h;r;r s;nekEAn b;s&ben. etnisenr b;s&bn Eb;r;ik ejl;r Ejur;et\ keYkidn t-;r pirb;err se^ k;i$eYezn. esb;r t-;r s;eq s^I heyizeln ipYR;sn A*;<@uj ixLpI nNdl;l bsu. AE smY rib #;kuerr anuer;e/ ak;i/k Sbn;m/n* ic]kr /mIRY pit &;rtIY  dxRenr ix=k &;rttBibd &;W; ibexW+ I;ibd c;ed; (i$ isermin) Eekb;n; p&Oitr pix=kg, x;iNtinekten igeYezn. ek ek inejr ed*;eg xImit ixjueY EireY ebo pit a;r. ikmur; pmu%. ibXb&;rtIr pqm ibedxI z;] izeln j;p;nI t, ix=;qIR ex;et;ku eh;ir itin s'SkOt &;W; ix%et igeYizeln. %*;itm;n b;'l; \ j;mR;n &;W; ibexW+ rbINd gebWkedixek;m purSk;r ibjYI a/*;pk @. k;ju\ a;jum;r &;W* eqek j;n; y;Y gt xt;Ir pqm eqek idBtIY ibXbyu pyRNt km pe= Ak h;j;r j;p;nI z;]z;]I pit ix=k ixLpI /mIRY ent; b*bs;YIsh ibi& epx;r k;irgr p;rdxIR klk;t; \ !;k; ael bsb;s kretn. t;edr ek ek icrSh;YI\ heYezn klk;t; !;k;Y ibb;h Ab' jIbny;penr b*bSh; Sh;pn ker. eymn eYem;n t;ekd; duE &;E klk;t; \ !;k;Y b; emeY ibeY kerizeln.
   itIYb;r y%n rbINdn;q j;p;en a;esn t%n\ ebx a;Ntirk s'b/Rn; l;& kern. esoNdeyRr lIl;&Uim ikeY;et; n;r;sh b;i,j* mh;ngr \s;k; Ab' bNdrngrI ek;eb pirdxRen y;n. AE smY\ t-;r an*tm s^I izeln ixLpI nNdl;l bsu. Ab;r a;erkjn p%*;t j;p;nI ic]ixLpI k;eMp; a;r;EAr s;eq rbINdn;q \ nNdl;elr `int; hY. rib #;kuerr anuer;e/ keMp; a;r;E 1916 s;elr 16 t;ire%E klk;t;Y y;n. p;Y a;;E bzr itin &;ret izeln. ajNt; Eel;r;r h;ice]r anukre,r k;j krizeln itin. &;rt j;p;n s;'SkOitk sMpekRr e=e] t-;r abd;n apirsIm.

 j;p;en rbINd p&;b "

   tOtIYb;r 1914 s;el rbINdn;q j;p;n sfrk;el t_k;lIn at*Nt p&;bx;lI pbI, j;tIyt;b;dI ent; im_su et;EY;m; ej;t;er; ihr;\k; pmue%r s;eq s;=;_ kern. \eYen; xherr esEeY;k;n n;mk ibx;l &ben t-;ek Ak s'b/Rn; j;n;en; hY. AE s&;Y r;jnIitk s;ihit*k buijIbI a/*;pk s;mirk aifs;rsh sm;ejr g,*m;n* b*ibgR piSqt izeln. abx* piSqt izeln j;p;n pb;sI ibpbI r;sibh;rI bsu. rbINdn;q &;retr Sb;/Int; s'g;emr l;EeY et;EY;m;r s;h;y* \ shey;igt;r kq; sx ice Sr, kern. Ab' kOt+t; +;pn kern r;sibh;rI bsu Ab' eher l;l Pt AE dujn &;rtIY ibpbIedrek j;p;en a;xeYr b*bSq; \ shey;igt; kr;r jn*. rbINdn;q r;sibh;rI bsur Xbr;lY e$;ikeY;r ixnjuku b;i,j*ngerr ib%*;t b*bs; pit;n n;k;mur;EY;Y aitiq heYizeln. et;EY;m; im_surr s;eq rib #;kuerr keYkb;r p] ibinmY\ hY. 1929 s;el\ rib #;kur et;EY;m;r s;eq s;=;_ kret eceYizeln ikNtu t%n itin cIn sfer izeln. tq;ip r;sibh;rI bsur m;/*em rbINdn;q Aki$ e&Cz; b;,I et;EY;m;rr jn* ere% y;n. et;EY;m; im_sur s;eq rbINdn;eqr AE s'ey;g %ub Ak$; pc;irt hYin j;p;n \ b;'l; ael. eknn; yuer pr aenekE et;EY;m;ek g j;tIYt;b;dI kmRk; Ab' EeMpirY;l esn;b;ihnIr s;eq `in sMpkR q;k;r k;re, t-;ek EY;kuj; (j;p;nI m;ifY;)r ڇ bel ai&iht kerezn. pkOtpe= t; st* nY. itin sit*k;r aeqR AixY; eqek ext;gedr ibd;Y eceYizeln. itin etnixenr AixY; Ak AE mtb;ed a;mOt*u ibXb;sI izeln. rbINdn;q sbt" et;EY;m;r ibWeY smSt ejenenE t-;r s;eq pirict het a;gh pk;x kerizeln. ikNtu rbINdn;q aitir j;tIYt;b;edr iber;/I izeln. e$;ikeY; ibXbibd*;leY Ak bOt; d;n k;el itin j;p;nIedr g j;tIYt;b;ed ke#;r sm;el;cn; krel t-;r pit h#;_ kerE piriSqit xItl heY e#. jnipYt; h;s p;Y. t_k;lIn ib%*;t kib eY;enijer; en;ic klk;t;Y rbINdn;eqr s;eq j;p;nI j;tIYt;b;d ineY ibtekR jieY pen. edxibedex abSq;rrt j;p;nI s;ihit*k r;jnIitk \ buijIbIr; rbINdn;eqr ke#;r sm;el;cn; kret idB/; kernin. Atsb sm;el;cn;ek e=p n; kerE rbINdn;q j;p;nI entObONdek -ixY;r ker &ibW*_ b;,I kerizeln " AE gt;r fel t;edrek aitir mUl* idet het p;er.

  
bSt" idBtIY ibXbyue j;p;nIedr pr;jY esE &ibW*_b;,Iek set* pir,t kerizl. ai/k;'x j;p;nIr; rbINdn;qek d;xRink belE j;enn. mUlt" etnixn \ rbINdn;qek ineYE j;p;nI \ b;;lIr s;'SkOitk ibinmY a;eNd;ln ge e#izl. rbINdn;eqr gIt;il rbINdn;q en;ebl purSk;r p;b;r pr prE j;p;nI &;W;Y anUidt hY. abx* sbRem;$ dxb;r anUidt heYez bel pefsr a;jum; j;n;eln. teb mUl b;'l; eqek Akb;rE sr;sir anub;d heYez a;r A$;E sbRk;elr sbRex gIt;ilr j;p;nI anub;d bel SbIkOt.

   &;rtIY Sb;/Int; yuer an*tm pb;sI ent; r;sibh;rI bsur m;/*em ent;jI su&;W bsur j;p;n a;gmn eg$ AixY; ek;ep;seperi$ SpIY;er (Great Asia Coprosperity Sphear) &;retr pitini/ iheseb su&;W bsur ey;gd;n &;rtIY Sb;/Int; a;eNd;len j;p;enr smqRn \ shey;igt; AEsb et; a;j\ Sr,ey;g* Ab' duE aelr s;'SkOitk /;r;r s;eq imex a;ez.

   itIY ibXbyuer pr e$;ikeY; imil$;rI $;Ebun;elr an*tm p/;n ibc;rpit b;;il ibc;rk ix=;ibd @.
r;/;iben;d p;l inedR;W r;Y e`;W,; ker ibXbEith;es amr heY a;ezn. m;ikRn yur;sh smg ibXb t-;r r;Y emen ineYizl. itin\ izeln rbINdn;eqr a;dxR anus;rI. itin j;p;en itnb;r Aesezn. yuer pr 1953 s;el iher;ixm;Y anuit ibXbx;iNtr le=* a;erk &;rtIY ibpbI r;j; mehNd pt;p pitit \Y;L@R ef@;erxnAr AixY; k;iNslAr s&;Y s&;pit iheseb a;miN]t heY Aesizeln @. p;l. mOt*ur pUebR exWb;r j;p;n Aesizeln j;p;nI sm;$ iher;ihet;r k;z eqek t-;r kOitetBr SbIkOit Sbrp r;er an*tm sebR;Cc p;pRl irbn pdk gh, kr;r jn*. AkE smY j;p;enr an*tm p;cIn myR;d;sMp pk;xn; s'Sq; ehEeb;nx; pk;xn; s'Sq;r pit;t; ix=;ibd el%k EY;s;buer; ixem;n;k;\ anurp pdk gh, kerizeln ix=; \ s'SkOit e=e] ibexW abd;n r;%;r jn*. e%* ey ixem;n;k;r s;eq @. p;elr &;tObN/n Sq;ipt heYizl. t-;edr SOitek a=Y ker r;%;r jn* k;n;g;\Y;ejl;r h;ek;en n;mk Sq;en 25 bzr a;eg p;lixem;n;k; emem;irY;l hl Sq;pn kerezn t-;edr dujenrE Akin ixW* el%k gebWk Ab' @. p;elr inedR;W r;eYr anub;dk m;s;a;ik t;n;k; mh;xY. 1999 s;el y%n t-;r s;eq s;=;_ kret y;E itin dI`R=, smY ineY aenk kq;E Sr,kerezn @. p;l r;sibh;rI bsu A.Am.n;Y;r ent;jI Ab' b^bN/u ex% muijb sMpekR. t-;r `er sbR] ex;&; p;eCz @. p;elr zib. A%n t-;r bYs 94 bzr. abx* @. p;elr Aki$ SOit flk Sq;pn kr; heYez sMpit ikeY;et;r Aki$ in&Ot miNder. pbI, j;p;nI gebWk buijIbI s;ihit*kr; rbINdn;q \ @. r;/;iben;d p;lek sbeceY ebix x; ker q;ekn. rbINdn;q p-;cp-;cb;r j;p;n sfr kerezn. itin j;p;nIedr pkOitin&Rr jIbny;pn \ ixLp&;bn;r pit d;,&;eb a;kO heyizeln. a;r @. p;l j;p;nIedr a;itk dOt; tq; buixed;r px's; kerezn.

   itIY ibXbyuer pr y%n j;p;n sMpU,R&;eb ib/BSt ibpyRSt Ab' ib;Nt t%n a;erkb;r Aedexr t_k;lIn ag,I buijIbI ix=;ibd \ r;jnIitkbONd rbINdn;eqr xr,;p heYizeln. aenekE rbINdn;eqr ix=; \ dxRn j;p;nI ix=;b*bSq;Y peY;g kret a;ghI heYizeln. AE eex* 1959 s;el @. kuinihek; \\kur;r (18821971) entOetB j;p;n rbINd gebW,; ekNd eY;ek;h;m;Sq t-;r p;s;ed;pm b;s&ben Sq;pn kr; hY. @. kuinihek; izeln rbINdn;eqr `in bN/uu Ab' ib%*;t Aki$ k;gj wtir ek;Mp;nIr m;ilk \ prbtIRk;el et;eY; ibXbibd*;leYr a;c;yR. rbINdn;q y%n 1929 s;el j;p;n sfr kern t-;r e$;ikeY;Sq emer;\Y;e@Rr b;iet Ak m;s izeln. itin rbINdn;qek 12 %er mh;j;p;nI Eith;s c;ed; Eekb;n; p&Oit gNq ph;r edn. rbINdn;q klk;t;Y ifer igeY Ar ibinmeY inejr rict E'erij \ b;'l; p;Y 200 i$ gNq @. kuinihek;ek p;#;n. esel; A%en; \\kur;EY;m; SOitx;l;r puer;en; gNq;g;err aN/k;r pek;e ibb,R abSq;Y reYez.

 rbINdn;eqr punr;ib&R;b "
  
AE s'Sq; eqekE t_k;lIn &;retr p/;nmN]I j\hrl;l enehr anuer;e/ @. kuinihek;r s&;pitetB p;Y 60 jn buijIbI a/*;pk ic]ixLpI s;ihit*k gebWk b*bs;YI kN#ixLpI  nOt*pix=k /mIRY pietr smnBeY e$eg;r emem;irY;l Aes;iseYxn g#n kr; hY rbINdn;eqr jnxtbWR dy;penr jn*. A-edr me/* izeln &;rttBibd @. h;ijem n;k;mur; ix=;ibd pk;xk EY;s;buer; ixem;n;k; ixs;ihit*k sm;el;ck anub;dk EY;m;mur; ixjuk; ejn ebo pit i$.i@.sujuik a/*;pk ikej; En;ju @. kuineY;ix \\b;r; pefsr ixnEY; k;sug;E pefsr et;ixihek; k;t;EY;m; mihl; ic]kr \ ix=;ibd ej;s;ku m;eYd; mihl; ic]ixLpI a/*;ipk; fuku a;iken; nOt*ixLpI pix=k im. s;k;ikb;r; a/*;pk k;ju\ a;jum; pmu%. AE ple= ibi& Sq;en aifs Sq;pn ker s'g#enr piricitp] \ s'ib/;n pk;x c-;d; s'gh m;isk s&; st* n;mk m;isk pi]k; pk;x b;'l; &;W; ex%; gIitn;$* ic];^d;sh s;'SkOitk anu;enr inYimt mh; Et*;id kmRk;er i&tr ideY 1961 s;el e$;ikeY;et keYkidn b*;pI ebx `$; ker rbINd jnxtbWR p;ln kr; hY. Ai$ Aki$ ith;isk `$n;. rbINdn;eqr p&;b 1964 s;l aqR;_ e$;ikeY; ailiMpk anu;enr pUbR pyRNt j;p;nIedr mnen g&Ir&;ebE ibSt;irt izl. t;m;g;\Y; g;kueYn mh;ibd*;leYr bnjk*;Mp;es x;iNtinektenr a;del Aki$ j;p;nI x;iNtinektn ge et;l;r\ pirkLpn; en\Y; heYizl. k;x\ heYizl g;zg;z;ilr tel ixikex;redr ineY. ikNtu e$;ikeY; ailiMpk k;l;r e$ili&xn Ab' dӳtgitsMp buel$ e$n (ixnk;nezn) Ar sfl pclenr fel j;p;en dӳt aqRwnitk  Yenr ej;Y;r a;es. ey ej;Y;er e&es y;Y j;p;n. Ar prprE a;es b;bl (budbud) aqRnIitr yug. m;ikRnI \ eY;er;pIY b;j;r d%l ker enY Eelk$ink s;m;j*b;dI j;p;nI ek;Mp;nIel;. m;] 40 b_ser idBtIY aqRwnitk xiet rp;Ntirt h\Y;r aeloikk `$n; ed%;et s=m hY j;p;n. m;] 70 dxk eqek 2000 s;l AE 30 bzer edxi$ ser y;Y AixY; eqek. AixY;r a;emirk; j;p;n shej &uel y;Y t;r AixY;n piricit mUl*eb;/ Ab' sudI`Rk;elr Aks;eq pqcl;r s;qIedr. abx* Arme/* ey s;'SkOitk ibinmY ikzu `e$in t; nY teb t; %ubE =I, Ab' sIimt a;k;er.

j;it piricitr sms*; "

   yuer per 1953 s;el j;p;n y%n m;ikRnI d%ltB eqek mui l;& ker t%n bzr dexk /er ikzu j;p;nI ix=k \ z;]z;]I x;iNtinektnsh an*;n* &;rtIY ibXbibd*;leY igeYezn. ikNtu ab;/&;eb m;ikRnI \ p;Xc;t* p*;xn f*;xn \ s'SkOit gh, kret q;k;r fel &;rt tq; AixY;mu%I h\Y; j;p;nIedr s'%*; mxE h;s p;iCzl. b;bl aqRnIitr yug es$;ek p;Y xUen*r ek;#;Y n;imeY a;en. &;rtIY ibWY;id ixe% j;p;en &;t p;\Y; Ak kq;Y asb izl sbRk;elE. ek;en;k;elE b;'l; b; &;rtIY an*;n* &;W; ixe% j;p;en m;;ir pyRNt kr; y;Yin. c;kurI kr; et; dUerr kq;. a;r A%n et; j;p;nIr; bdel eyet eyet Amn Ak pj;itet pir,t heYez ibexW ker ntun pjn Ar; j;p;nI n; m;ikRnI n; eY;er;pIY ecn; muxikl. Ar; A%n AixY; mh;edxE ecenn;s'SkOit j;neb Amni$ a;x; eb;k;im. Ar; k;r; ? Akm;] j;p;nI &;W; t;edr mue% nel #;hr kr; y;Y ey Ar; j;p;nI. abx* y;r; a;emirk; b; eY;er;ep y;Y t;r; AY;rep;e$R /;; %;YSbPn&g hY y%n t;edrek ext;g iheseb nY AixY;n ihesebE d-;;et heCz ede%. AE a;Ee@ni$i$ ;Eiss A%n j;p;enr j;tIY sms*;. AE sms*;r sm;/;n a;ez punr;Y j;p;enr AixY;Y ifer a;s;r me/*. A$; a;m;edr nY j;p;nIedrE &;W*. ikNtu j;p;n ik AixY;Y ifer a;s;r mtn ikzu krez 
A%n ? a;m;edr et; ec;e% pe n;. Akm;] 1961 s;elr pr j;p;en ey %;ink$; &;rtIY ed;l; l;eg esi$ hl 1988 s;el Akm;sb*;pI &;rt _sb teb t; &;rt srk;err ed*;eg heYez. AE smY ikzu &;rtIY cliCc] pdixRt hY t;r me/* itBk `$ekr eme` !;k; t;r; ede% b j;p;nIek axӳsjl het ede%iz. t%n eqek t;m;ik m;_su\k; n;em Ak j;p;nI &dmihl; &;rtIY cliCce] mu heY gt dx bzr /er j;p;en j;p;n f;exenr shey;igt;Y sIimt a;k;er &;rtIY cliCce]r pdxRnI Ab' _sebr a;eY;jn ker celezn. Eitme/* der cliCce]r pr ere$;sepki$& pdxRenr a;eY;jn kerezn itn b;r. &;rtIY cliCc] ibWYk esimn;r Ab' a;el;cn;nu;enr a;eY;jn\ krezn. ibi& ix=; pit;en AE ibWeY bOt; ideCzn. teb t; %ubE =ud gir me/*. rbINdn;q \ b;'l; &;W;r pit aitsMpit ikzu ikzu t, t,Ir men;ey;g a;kWR, heCz i#kE teb t;r; Aekb;erE h;et eg;n;.
   A bzr &;rt \ b;'l;edexr s;eq j;p;enr kU$wnitk sMpekRr 50 \ 30 bzr puitR p;ln kr; heCz j;p;n srk;err p= eqek.  ebsrk;ir&;eb duAki$ s'g#n p;ln krez a;el;cn; s&;r m/* ideY. ikNtu 100 bzerr s;'SkOitk ibinmeYr ibWYi$ ebm;lum &uel bes a;ez. A$; ik a;r\ ibr;$ `$n;bl tBpu,R `$n; nY ? A$; ik sit* &uel y;b;r mtn s;m;n* `$n;pb;h A pyRNt m;] dui$ anu;enr kq; j;n; y;eCz. Aki$ gt m;cR m;es ibix rbINd gebWk \ j;p;en #;kursimitr s&;pit @. k;ju\ a;jum; t-;r =ud s'g#n eqek. rib #;kuerr c;ilk; m;iYt kerezn e$;ikeY;sh an*;n* keYki$ xher sIimt a;eY;jen &;rt eqek n;$*eg;Iek a;mN], j;ineY. t-;r bYs A%n 72 clez. t-;r S]I imess ikEek; a;jum;\ rbINd&. Am.A.kerezn e$;ikeY; ibXbibd*;leY rbINdn;eqr bl;k; k;b*geNhr pr iqiss ile%. angRl b;'l; eymn bel y;n etmin an;Y;es keN# /;r, kret p;ern rbINds^It.
t-;edr mtn rbINd;nur;gI j;p;nIr pr prbtIR ek a;ezn ik a;m;edr j;n; enE. t-;r Ab' &;rttBibd @. _suex; ibeY;ed;r 30 bzerr ak;Nt pec;r fel 1994 s;el ibXb&;rtI p;^e, inimRt heYez inn&bn y; izl rbINdn;eqr a;jIbnk;r SbPn edebr AE SbPnek b;Stb;Yn ker Ak mh;n dO;Nt Sq;pn kerezn t-;r;. anurp&;eb j;p;en\ Aki$ rbINd SOit i&ik y;du`r pitit h\Y; ict nY ik ? ag;S$ m;es a;erki$ `$n; heYez 100 bzr ple=. a;g;mI ae;br m;es eY;ek;h;m;et etnixenr jnSq;n Ab' rbINdn;eqr b SOit/n* A%;en j;p;nb;'l;r gt 100 bzerr s;'SkOitk ibinmeYr Eith;sek Sr,IY ker r;%; Ab' /;r;b;ihkt;ek punIibt kr;r le=* j;p;nb;'l; s'Sq;r edB;/n het y;eCz. @. k;ju\ a;jum; AE s'Sq;r sm;nIt ecY;rm*;n inyu heYezn. a;r a;ezn
  rbINd& j;p;n pb;sI ittIY n;girk pefsr @. epm; igY;lep; pefsr et;ixa;ik \\_suk; @. k;juen;bu \\EY;m; im_suen;ir k;imEY; gebWk eY;ixa;ik h;r; p;n p/;nmN]I ihedik et;ej;r epoi] eli%k; \ pirebx s'r=, kmIR Eikek; et;ej; t, el%k gebWk t;ekEik t;n;k; (im_su et;EY;m;r pepo]) s'SkOitkmIR xImit t;imek; \\b; ireY fukud; a;im pbIr ibk;x srk;r m;hbubul a;lm a;xr;f a;lI ic]ixLpI ilY;kt a;lI pmu%. gt 21 ex a;gS$ a;mr; rbINdSOit ibjirt Sq;nsmUh pirm, Ab' esimn;err a;eY;jen isirejr pqm Sq;ni$ ebez inE n;eg;en;r k;Ej;\Y;. ey%;en 80 bzr a;eg rbINdn;q j;p;nI z;]Iedr eex* bOt; ideYizeln. t-;r Aki$ a;b= muitR es%;en Sq;ipt heYez rbINdn;eqr & \ t_k;lIn j;p;nI anub;idk; et;im ek;r;r ed*;eg. itn `N$;r pq b;es ce es%;en igeY %-uej epet s;m;n* ebg epel\ rbINdn;eqr s;men piSqt heYizl;m ebx -cu p;h;e e#. sbuj;& rer a;b= mUitRr rib #;kur t;ikeY a;ezn inbR;k dUr p;h;er /Usr sIm;er%;r idek. esimn;err p/;n b; izeln pefsr @. k;juen;bu \\EY;m;. itin ed `N$;r bOt;Y 50 bzr a;eg AixY;Y j;p;enr &Uimk; t;r exoyRbIyR sflt; b*qRt; Ab' etnixn et;EY;m; rbINdn;q @. p;l su&;W cNd bsu pmue%r j;tIYt;b;dI icNt;ectn;r kq; a;m;edr Sr, kireY ideln. itin bleln a;mr; AixY;n a;m;edrek p;ec*r mUl*eb;/ ineY b-;cet heb. s;rxUn* m;ikRnI b; eY;er;pIY yN]b;d a;m;edr peY;jn enE. j;p;nek AixY;Y ifer a;set heb.

exW kq; "  

   j;p;n ik AixY;Y sit* ifer a;set c;Y ? ek;q;\ et; t;r l=, enE. es ey t;r inejr a;tpircY a;j &ulet besez a;pn Sbedexr nms* b*iedr a;j efel ideCz ibSOitr ghBer. A$; ik j;itr jn* a;g;mI pjenr jn* sebR;pir AixY;n &;tOtBeb;e/r jn* m^ljnk ? j;p;n b;'l; s;'SkOitk ibinmeYr 100 bzrek ey xItl men;&;b ineY @;S$iben efel ideY kU$wnitk sMpekRr 50 bzr b; 30 bzr pUitR `$; ker p;ln kr; t; ik ex;&nIY hl ? A ey Eith;esr muu a;r h;tp; eke$ /u ed;r$;ek pUj; kr;r x;iml ey ed;r$; /uE b;i,ij*k /uE r;jnIitkedr Sb;qRprt;r ptIk Eith;s ik emen eneb AE abehl; ?
 

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