a;jekr j;p;n " h;it kOx hel kt%;in het p;er
pbIr ibk;x srk;r

   bl; heY q;ek j;p;nI &;W; pOiqbIr ki#ntm &;W;el;r Aki$. j;p;nI &;W; bl; eymn ki#n t;r eceY\ ki#n el%;. eknn; AE &;W;Y reYez itni$ k;#;em; ihr;g;n; k;t;k;n; a=r Ab' cIn; \ j;p;nI k;nij k*;er;r. y;r; j;p;n ibWeY pitgebWk t-;r;\ j;p;nI &;W;Y el%;r a;gh q;kel\ il%et igeY ipizeY pen. t-;edr el%; b; gebW,;kmR E'erjI eqekE j;p;nI &;W;Y anUidt heY q;ek. es%;en b*itm Aki$ kmR sMp;dn; kerezn j;p;nSh btRm;n &;rtIY r;dUt a;ft;b ex#. anub;d nY sr;sir j;p;nI &;W;etE tq*bl a;el;inedRxk Ab' _s;hb*k Aki$ gNh j;p;n ibWeY ile%ezn. pk;ixt heYez ex;ednex; n;mk m;Z;ir pk;xn; s'Sh; eqek 2001 s;elr i@esr m;es. gNhi$r n;m\ ai&nb " ej; \Y; EY;eset em; ej; ed a; How much weight can an elephant lose AE n;em. es;j; b;'l;Y y;ek bel " h;it kOx hel kt%;in het p;er !
   bl;b;l* AE h;iti$ j;p;n. 1990Ar pr b;bl aqRnIit(Bubble Economy buuedr mtE imileY y;b;r pr gt Ak dxk /er j;p;n dӳt gitet kOxk;Y heY a;sez. btRm;n kmRhIenr s'%*; 5.5% xt xt =ud \ m;Z;ir klk;r%;n; b;i,j* pit;n edilY; heY peez. Aedr me/* b b pit;n\ keYki$ aNt&Ru. p&;bx;lI b*;'k \ b;i,j* pit;n m;gt inejedr e&e^cue kmRc;rIedr z;$;E ker k;#;em;punRg#n Ab' an*;n* pit;enr s;eq a^I&Ut Merge h\Y;r pb,t;Y &ugez. /u bihRibexBE nY a;&*NtrI, b;j;r\ m;gt skuict heY pez. p,*s;mgI ibi heCzn; b;bl aqRnIitr yueg eymn ht muimuikr mt!
  
p;kOitk sMped at*Nt dird; p,*pStk;rI edx iheseb j;p;enr b;i,j* z;; git enE. p/;n wbedixk mud; ajRenr pq wbdu*itk srm;id Ab' em;$r g;i ibi. A dui$ e=e] A%n j;p;n sbR] pc pitey;igt;r smu%In. j;p;n eqekE Akd; pyui ix=;gh, Ab' a;md;nIpb, AixY;r #it edxel; j;p;enr p,*s;mgIr pitey;gI pitp=. di=, ek;irY; t;E\Y;n h'k cIn is^;pur m;leYixY; EeNd;enixY; q;El*; Amn ik i&eYtn;m pyRNt j;p;enr pitey;gI heY #ez idn idn. ikNtu Aedr ek z;ieY egez ible a;s; AixY;r bOh_ is'h cIn. a;j j;p;enr a;&*NtrI, b;j;r sSt; cIn; p,*s;mgIet sYl;b ! b j;p;nI p,*s;mgI sbR] eyidekE ec;% y;Y ikNtu h;et ineY pe,*r $*;g eL$ ed%el ed%; y;eb  Made in China. Akm;] g;i z;; wdniNdn jIbenr b*bh;irk sb p,*s;mgI cIn;. Ar perr Sh;n .heCz di=, ek;irY;r. Az;; m;ikRnI j;mR;nI fr;sI em;$r g;i f*;xnh;s Ab' aep=;kOt sSt; m;l;m;l ibir sup;r e$;r el; b;j;er mi e%eY pez j;p;nI b;j;er.
   mud;r ibSfIit (Deflation) ebk;rtB jnxi h;s t, pjenr kemR anIh; Ab' j;Eb;_su (Financial Clique) im_suibix suimet;em; im_suE EY;sud; en;mur; p&Oit b;i,ij*k eg;I sh as'%* pit;enr AixY; di=, a;emirk;Y aqRlgI sSt; p;irximek p,*s;mgI _p;dn kr;r eex klk;r%;n; Sh;n;Ntr p&Oit k;re, aqRwnitk abSh; btRm;n s'k$;p p /;r, kerez.
   j;p;enr bihRa^ e%;l; ec;e% Zel;mel; Ab' Sb;Sh*kr men hel\ i&trmhel ebx b /bsE enemez. ak;i/k tr sms*; s'ke$r a;betR `ur p;k %;eCz edxi$. j;p;enr A%n  sbeceY b sms*; heCz " fuireY; s;Eekn Disposing of Bad Loans aqR;_ b;bl aqRnIitr yueg ey skl b*;'k jimr ibinmeY Ab' xt xt ireYl A*;e$$ ek;Mp;nIel;ek ek;i$ ek;i$ EeYn , ideYizl t;r smUh&;gE apirex;i/t abSh;Y A%en; reY egez. b*;'ek ifer a;esin sud \ a;sl $;k;. eknn; b;bl aqRnIit /besr s;eq jimr mUl*\ tr kr ker nIec enem y;Y. A%en; inMngitr idekE y;eCz. fel b*;'kel;\ AE ab*bht jimel;ek ibi kret p;rezn;. a;r ekn;r mt et;\ enE.
   Sr, r;%; drk;r an*;n* edexr tuln;Y j;p;enr b*;'kb*bSh; sMpU,R i&. Aedex Sb,R erop* b; hIr;jhretr ibinmeY , edY; hYn;Akm;] b*bh;rey;g* t;m;ep; b; jim z;;! abx* AE ibpul pirm;, , ineY A%n j;p;nI r;jnIitibd Ab' x;skdl duE&;eg ib&. Akdl blezn eyehtu j;p;nI aqRwnitk abSh; crm s'k$;plupT , a;r ifer a;s;r s;bn; enE esehtu AE e%l;pI , %;irj ker ideY ntun ikzu icNt; kr; ict. an*delr bb* e%l;pI ,ek ekNd kerE aqRwnitk s'Sk;r jrI. ey k;re, btRm;n p/;n mN]I junEicer; ek;Ejuim aqRwnitk s'Sk;r pirkLpn; aqb; ek;ej; k;Ek;ku n;mk gitxIl ed*;g ineY x;snyeN]r &;r h;et ineYizeln. ikNtu A%n pyRNt s'Sk;err i$ik$\ ed%; y;eCzn;. edxibedexr ai&+;nmhl Eitme/* t-;ek A m*;n en; $k A*;kxn $k \nil p;/Iet &UiWt kerezn! t;r kmRk;e ht;x yugp_ s;/;r, m;nuW Ab' b*bs;iYk eg;I. aqRwnitk s'Sk;err d;iYtB ideYezn AkE ekEeY; ibXbibd*;leYr pefsr t;ekn;k; ehEej; iyin A%n j;itr k;ez epp;r @;E&;r n;em pirict! an*idek bl; y;eCz aqRwnitk mNd; a;r\ crm a;k;r /;r, kreb a;g;mI bzrel;et. pit c;r jenr Akjn kmRhIn heY p;r a;x'k; reYez. aqc A%en; ibexBr idBtIY aqRwnitk xi iheseb j;p;n pitit. $;k;r t;r a&;b enE. ibexBr sbRbOh_ sYI pit;n heCz j;p;enr @;k`r sY b*bSh;. A%;en 2000 s;elr Ak iheseb j;n; y;Y 260 i$ilYn EeYn sit a;ez. y;r Ak;'x ideY an;Y;es b*;'ekr e%l;pI , ex;/ kr; y;Y. c;^; ker edY y;y b*;'kel;ek inimReW. ntun ntun b*bs;r jn* , edY; ek;n ki#n k;j nY. ikN px heCz ik&;eb? AE ibpul pirm;, $;k;Y EeCz krelE h;t idet p;ern; srk;r. AE ineY a;ez pcur tkRibtkR. AE pit;ni$ srk;r inYN],;/In @;k \ e$iley;g;ey;g mN],;leYr. jnge,r Akm;] in&Rrey;g* \ ibxBSt sYShl. ikN btRm;en aqRwnitk s'k$ k;$;en;r jn* AE ibpul sYek b*bh;r kr; z;; git\ enE.
   AE heCz a;jekr j;p;enr s;migk a;iqRk abSh;. AE s'k$mY muhUetR j;p;enr Akin &;k;I xI ex# gNhi$ pk;x ker /u smeY;ict d;iYtBE p;ln kernin punr;Y e# d-;;en;r jn* j;p;enr egorbmY atItek Sr, kr;r a;hB;n\ itin j;p;nIedr j;ineYezn. _s;hb*k AE gNhi$ tBpU,R n;n; k;re,. sIimt pirser t; ineY a;el;cn; kr;r suey;g enE. teb keYki$ ibWeY ibStOt a;el;kp;t b; suSp inedRxn; q;kel gNhi$ pirpU,R het bel ibxB;s.
   pqemE ed%; y;k sUicpe] ik ik ibWY a;ez. bl; y;Y j;p;enr skl ibWeYE itin SpxR kerezn. sbel; ineY a;el;cn; sb nY teb ixer;n;m pe p;#k ikzu$; hel\ /;r,; kret p;rebn ibWY sMpekR es kq; ibebcn;Y ere% puer; sUicp]E tuel /r; hl"

pqm pirCzd "
ibx;l;k;r hiSt j;p;n" kOxk;Y hel\ xi/r
&;ret j;p;nIxi bel Aki$ pb;d reYez
* jIbnI xiet pirpU,R j;p;n ineStj hl ekn?
* edbt; iheseb l;&jnk sd; p;sn;et ai/it gj esE pr kq;
* btRm;n j;p;n kOxk;Y hel\
A%en; Sb;Sh*b;n
* yuer pr prE eneh j;p;nek ph;r p;#;n Aki$ h;it
* e$;ikeY; $;Ebun;el Akm;] Akjn &;rtIY j;p;nek inedR;W e`;W,; kerizeln
* suibc;r inrep=t; mh;nu&bt; AE kq;el; j;p;nIedr a;itk xi
* \eYen; iciY;%;n;Y ri=t enhr b;,I
* j;p;en epirt c;r nr h;itr n;m sUeyR;dY

idBtIY pirCzd "
a;Ei$ e=e] ag,I edx &;retr c;ilk;xi Ab' j;p;enr pit a;ebdn
sf$\Y*;er dӳt ibkixt &;rt Ab' h;@R\Y;err j;p;n prSpr pirpUrk
* a;kWR,IY sf$\Y*;er Yn \mt; Ab' sMpdx;lI em/;bI sm;j
* Ak dxk pUebRr aqRwnitk s'k$ A&;eb aitm krez
* ibexBr duE nr /nI heCzn &;rtIY a;Ei$ k,R/;r
* &;ret j;p;enr aqRlgIr e=]smUh
* xUn* a;ib:k;r eqek sUcn;
* pib] kebd bY;en a&;bnIY Sr,xi
* Ccm;/*imk ix=; sm;pT ker bzer Ak l;% a;E$ ibexWe+r a;ib&R;b
* a;Ntj;itRk m;nd sUck ISO 9000 isirejr aNt&Ru pit;nsmUh
* eY;er;p m;ikRnI ek;Mp;nIel;r a;$ es;isR'
* Enef;iss ek;Mp;nIr anup dOx*m;n aitbOh_ pbOi
* a;emirk;/ E'l*; /j;mR;nsh
ibxBb*;pI ibStOt heCz &;rtIY jnxi
* sf$\Y*;r rPt;nIr e=e] j;p;n A%n\ =ud b;j;r
* &;rt \ j;p;n pitdBNdI h\Y; asb
* ntun Ak &ibW*tmiNdr g;r le=*

tOtIY pirCzd "
ait a;tibxB;s Ab' wnr;x*b;d punr;bOik;rI j;p;n
emEij eqek btRm;n pyRNt j;p;enr ;nptenr k;r,
* Great Asia Speare, pr;jY aqwnitk pbOi Ab' b;bl aqRnIitr /B's
* j;p;nI smrxi ibStOitr epzen dui$ r;er smqRn
* j;p;nI s;m;ej* anukul h\Y;
* a;Ntj;itRk s'e` ey;gd;enr pr d;sInt;
* emEij s'ib/;enr
]i$ ibxOl; sOik;rI kU$nIit
* a;Ntj;itRk pNhI ixedh;r; ikjuer; bn;m j;tIYt;b;dI ek;en;eY fuimm;er;
* a;emirk;r hSte=p Ab' ibiCzt;b;d
* j;p;enr ibiCzt;muir pq
* j;p;enr pitr=I eY;ixd;r entOtB
* ekn &;rt p;rm;,ibk prI=; krl?
* p;rm;,ibk inrS]Ikre, j;p;n \ &;retr smeZ;t;
* aqRin&Rr a;Ntj;itRk shey;igt; dI`RSh;YI nY
* Ali@ip x;sn;mel j;p;enr &;lmNd
* em;ir p/;n mN]Ir &;ret jnipYt;r k;r,
* j;p;enr aita;tibxB;s b;bl aqRnIitr /Besr
k;r,
* a;nugt* ktRb* m;nibkt; aqRwnitk pbOir pitp;lk j;p;nI sm;ejr xi
* j;p;nIedr Sb&;bis pec; \ kmRkuxlt; h;ireY y;Yin

ctuqR pirCzd "
j;p;n \ &;rt prSperr k;ez aijRt ix=;
ebo/mR eqek ker a;Ei$ pyRNt 1500 bzerr ibinmY sMpkR
* r;dUt heCz r;jnIit \ s'SkOitr edY;l aitme,r kiminek$r
* jn&Uim btRm;n abSh;n &eYr Eith;s Ab' s'SkOit j;n; apirh;yR
* wbedixk h;ml; eqek suri=t j;p;n
* ebo/mR jn ideYez &;rtIY p;cIn dxRn
* %I;n /mR \ &;rtIY puer;iht
* &;ret  c;eYr a;b;d  ix=;p;Pt j;p;nI
* @r p;lAr j;p;nI yu;pr;/Iedrek =m; kr;r i&i
* f-;sIr  a;edex eyoqis;eNtr i&iet pd;n anuict
* ekn &;rtIYr; j;p;nipY ?
* aqRwnitk inMngit j;p;nIedrek &;rtIY cliCce]r idek efr;eb!

pm pirCzd "
a;/uink j;p;n &;rtIYedr ece% ik&;eb pitibit hl
SbLp p;kOitk sMpedr edx ik&;eb ibSYkr it s;/n krl t;r git pt*= ker
* j;p;nIedr s;eq bN/uetBr bN/en m;t;mh Ab' m;t;
* j;p;n&;retr estu iheseb j;p;n&;rt Aes;iseYxn
* ixegen;bu \\kum; Ab' AEEic ixbus;\Y; j;p;n&;rt b;i,ij*k smOir dg;t;
* j;p;n&;rt Aes;iseYxenr 100 bzr
* &;rtIY \ ibedxI s'SkOitr imlnekNd a;m;edr gOh
* AE ec;e% ed%; &;rtIY s'SkOitr ibx;l ibStOit
* pqm eqekE j;p;enr p;rm;,ibk pitkOitr s;eq Ak;tt;
* j;p;nI sm;ejr gitxIlt; sMpekR a;ghI heY \#;
* a;m;r icNt;Y p;#puStk sms*;
* j;p;en ef;rA*;N@h;fem$m eqek jIbn
* esnet; ik ?
* p;nx;l; \ r;emnxep ex%; j;p;nI &;W;
* inmR;,k;ej Ak;k;r  e$;ikeY; ailiMpekr pUbR=,
* esE smY j;p;nI z;]edr pl= izl
* m;] a;$ bzer j;p;enr aibxB;s* pirbtRn s;/n

W pirCzd "
aitk;Y hiSt j;p;n injek a;r\ ibxB;s m
150 bzer dub;r s'k$ aitme,r it/;rI
* j;p;nek a;m;r Sbedx ibebcn;Y h;ig\Y;r; m;kut;er;r kibt;
* as^itek inYN]e,r =mt; b*it*;gek SbOIkOitd;enr xi
* aSp &ibW*t j;p;nI t, sm;j
* 10 bzr per j;p;enr abSh;
* bihRibexB em/; in"s;rk j;p;nI ix=; pit
* injbl b;blE heCz &;rtIY ixedr a;dxR
* Sbec;Y mui anusN/;nk;rI &;rtIY ix
* a;il^n;b &;retr dui$ sms*;
* r;jnIitetE y%nE /mRek a;n; hY ibxO'%l;r sOi hY
* sms*; sm;/;n keLp e# d-;;en; p-;c h;j;r bzerr em/;
* ixNh ebo \ ihNdu/emRr ey;g sU] ibWeY
* sbikzuetE itgt ek*r abSh;n
* atIet dub;r r;ek punRg#enr mh;pirkLpn; gh,
* itpunRg#enr me/*E punr;Y a;tibxB;s ajRn sb
   gNhi$r sUcn;pebR el%k gNhi$r n;mkre,r pXc;_p$ b*;%*; kerezn. AE pXc;_p$ itin %-uej epeYezn j;p;enr gt edx bzerr r;IY s;fel*r Eith;s iter i&ter. pqemE sfl emEij s'Sk;r 1868. s;mNtt;iN]k x;snb*bSh; sm;e$r h;et hSt;Ntirt. Aed; yug 16001868 aqR;_ m/*yug  eqek a;/uink yueg akS;_ j;p;enr p;Ntr. sMpU,R&;eb eY;er;pIY anukre, emEij sm;e$r is'h;sen a;er;h,. s;m;j*b;dI icNt;ectn;r eNW. eY;er;pIY smr \ yN]b;edr a;md;nI. ix=;b*bSh;Y tB a;er;p. Ael; at*Nt s;fel*r s;eq sMp;dn kerez j;p;n. Arpr 189495 s;el pr;mx;lI p;xBbtIR r;j* ixn b; cIenr s;eq yue jYl;&. emEij s'Sk;err m;] 27 bzr perr `$n;. 190405 s;el xj;p;n yue j;p;enr  ibjY ajRn. A$; j;p;nsh smg AixY;Y a&UtpUbR Aki$ `$n;.  exBt;^ xiek AE pqm ek;n i&be,RRr j;it yue pr;St kret p;rl. smg AixY;r j;itsmUehr me/* j;p;enr AE ibjY ey t;ek xix;lI Aki$ j;itet pir,t kret s;h;y* kerez A$; bl;E b;l*. jNm l;& kerez  j;p;nIxi bel ntun Aki$ pb;d.
   itIY ibXbyu pyRNt j;p;n AixY;r Akm;] ixeLp;t r;e pit; l;& kerez. g j;tIYt;b;d smrb;edr Z;; ieYez cIn ek;irY; pyRNt. p;Y smg AixY;r &U% s;m;j*b;dI j;p;enr krtlgt heYizl. 1923 s;el  di=,pUbR j;p;enr mh;&UimkMpenr pr punr;Y m;q; tuel d-;ieYez. 1945 s;el yue im]xi a;emirk;r k;ez pr;jY br, Ab' t_prbtIR 40 bzerr me/* a;emirk;r z]z;Y;Y ibeXbr idBtIY aqwnitk xiet  It h\Y;r egorb ajRn\ ibeXb j;p;enr mtn r;er pe= sb heYez. AE Yenr epzen k;j kerez mUlt" ek;irY; yu. j;p;enr j;Eb;_suel; pcur aS] wtrI \ srbr;ehr k;j eqek. reYez wbdu*itk sr;m wtrIet r;IY sbRxi peY;egr mtn t;_=i,k ed*;g pirkLpn;. 1964 s;el anuit e$;ikeY; ailiMpk. AE bzerE k;l;r i$i& buel$ e$En c;lu p&Oit s;fl*jnk kmRk;el;.
    AE ey s;fel*r it j;p;n sOi kerez gt edx bzerr me/*. pir,t heYez el%ekr &;W;Y ibx;l hiStet. 1990 s;elr pr b;bl budbud aqRnIitr /B'sp;iPtr m/* ideY esE it e&e^ pez g heY pez Ar aqRnIit sbR] j;p;nIr; ekmn eyn p;,hIn A$;E el%k l=* kerezn 30 bzr pr 2000 s;el j;p;en &;rtIY r;dUt heY pt*;btRenr pr j;p;enr ibi& Sh;n pirdxRn ker. AEb;r ineY itnb;r itin j;p;en Aeln. pqm Aesizeln 1962 s;el Sbn;m/n* ekEeY; igjuku ibXbibd*;leYr z;] iheseb. y%n ailiMpk egmesr a;eY;jn   Ab' buel$ e$Eenr inmR;, ye+ dY;St b*St r;j/;nI e$;ikeY; t;r a;xp;x. Arpr &;rtIY dUt;b;esr sicb iheseb 1970 s;el. k;ejE a&*NtrI, j;p;nek eymn %ub `in&;eb pt*= kerezn etmin j;p;enr s;eq keYk dxekr p;irb;irk b;i,ij*k sMpekRr k;re, j;p;enr Eith;sek g&Ir&;eb anu/;bn kr;r suey;g l;& kerezn. el%ekr m;t;mh klk;t;r b;isNd; bel e% kerezn. c;krI sUe] el%kek j;p;enr ibi& Sh;en bOt; pd;n k;el a;gt aitiqedr k;ez &Y edexr r;jwnitk s;'SkOitk Ab' aqwnitk abSh;id tuel /ret hY. j;p;enr btRm;n ineStj abSh;ek itin blet c;eCzn a;tibXb;shInt; j;p;n a;tibXb;s h;ireYez m;] A$; s;miYk a;b;r ifer p;\Y; sb. AE Ei^tek Aki$ &;rtIY pb;edr m/* ideY inedRx kereznh;it g hel\ h;it. teb el%ekr /;r,; anus;er j;p;nI aqRnIit g hel\ A%en; suSh. AE suSht;r ikzu$; amqRn p;\Y; y;Y sMpit Aki$ s;Pt;ihk k;gej s;=;_k;r d;n k;el a;NtjR;itk b*itB ib%*;t ekeY;esr; pit;enr an;r*;ir epise@N$ En;em;ir k;ju\r beb*. itin belezn a;sel aE mNd;bSh; j;p;enr kOxk;Y h\Y; nY pkOt abSh;Y ifer a;s;. yug \ s&*t;r dӳt pirbtRnxIlt;r Akm;] ixk;r heCz m;nb sm;j. piti$ sm;ejrE ;nptn reYez. j;p;n  t;r b*itm nY. teb j;p;enr e=e] AE mNd;&;b s;r; ibexBr aqRnIitet ibp p&;b efl;r s;bn; %ub Sb;&;ibk belE duiXcNt;r k;r, ibd*m;n. j;p;enr &;k;I iheseb xI ex# Ar b*itm nn.
   pqm pirCzed el%k g&Ir p;it* SbCz dOiek;, eqek b*;%*; kerezn ey ibWYel; t; heCz" j;p;enr aqwnitk in:p;,t;r k;r, hiSt ey /u bn*p nY ihNdu \ ebo/emRr aibiCz Xbirkm;^ilk ptIk hiStr s;eq tulnIY j;p;enr btRm;n &gSb;Sh* mUlt" a;x;b;edr l=, yue;r eneh ktORk epirt EiNdr; n;mk h;itr ph;r j;p;nI ixedr jn* izl a;el;ikt &ibW*etr  epr,; e$;ikeY; imil$;rI $;Ebun;elr an*tm ibc;rpit @ r;/;iben;d p;elr ith;isk r;Y y; j;tIYt;b;dI r;jnIitr e=e] Ak aibXb;s* punjR;gr, suibc;r inrep=t; mh;nu&bt; A%en; j;p;nIedr a;itk xi e$;ikeY;Sh \eYen; ici%;n;Y a;j\ reYez enehr aibSr,IY b;,I j;p;en epirt ctuqR r;IY ph;err h;iti$r n;m sUeyR;dY y; j;p;enr &ibW*t sMpekR %ubE t;_pyRpu,R. AE pirCzedr piti$ rcn;E aqRbh Ab' yueg;pey;gI.  
   zYi$ pirCzedr me/* sbeceY tBpU,R heCz idBtIYi$. AE pirCzedr ibWYel; eqekE Sp /;r,; e# a;es ey a;Ei$ e=e] &;retr aggit Ab' ibXbaqRnIitet ar apiter;/* p&;b btRm;en kI pyR;eY a;ez Ab' &ibW*et ek;n pyR;eY igeY ep-ozueb. Sb;/Int;r pr gt 50 bzer puren; &;rtb;sIr j;gt aqRwnitk muiectn;r xix;lI pitfln `$et kerez AE e=e]. ibSYkr sf$\Y*;r Yenr c;ihd; m;nbkl*;e,r p;x;p;ix &ibW*etr m;r,;is]k smrb;dek\ p&;ibt kret p;er A$;\ aSbIk;r kr;r p;Y enE. eknn; ibXbjns'%*;r inYN], Ab' aqRwnitk b*bSh;r s;eq yu \s'`WR \tep;t&;eb sMpikRt. ikN ej;$inrep= Ab' x;iNtb;dI yur;j* &;rt m;nbeg;Ir d;ird angsrt; seb;pir a;dxR m;nb sOjnkeLp t;r a;Ei$nIitek peY;g krebn A$;  eymn a;m;edr a;x;b;d etmin el%k ktROk Oit a;/uink &;retr d; j\hr l;l enehr mNtb* eqek\ AE pt*;x;E n et;el. eneh j;p;nI \ &;rtIY t, pjnek belizeln nbidenr miNdr y; a;jekr a;Ei$ pyui EN$;ren$m;/*m duE edexr btRm;n Ab' an;gt t, pjenr &;tObnenr ey;gsUe]r k;j kerez. gNhk;err &;W* anuy;YI sf$\Y*;r Yenr e=e] j;p;n &;rt prSpr pitNdI n; hel\ j;p;en &;rtIY a;Ei$b;j;r ibStOt het smY l;geb. eknn; &;W; A%;en Aki$ ibr;$ b*b/;n. a;r ey k;re, j;p;nI b;j;ri$\ =ud.
   AE pirCzed el%k &;rt sMpekR ey skl tq* pSh;pn  kerezn t; scr;cr j;p;nI g,m;/*em a;esn;. a;esn; gNhp;;Y gNhg;er. j;p;nI ikzu s'%*k b*bs;YIedr &;rt ibWeY a;gh q;kel\ s;/;r, m;nueWr enE blelE cel Akm;] pyR$n ibWY z;;. &;rt srk;r\ AE e=e]E b bzr /er tB a;erp ker a;sez.  pSh;ipt tq*el; pb;sI aenk &;rtIYr; j;enn n; hYtb;. eymn &;ret ;ist s'%*; xUn* a;jekr kiMp$;rpyuir s;eq sMpkRyu. ibeXbr itIY /nI b*bs;YI
A%n &;retE a;ezn. iyin a;Ei$ b*bs;r e=e] as;m;n* s;fl* ajRn kerezn. pren;sh btRm;n pjenr aenk pit;n a;EAs\
(International Organization for Standardization) isirejr aNt&Ru heYez. AE pyReY a;s; abx*E &;retr sudI`Rk;elr s'g;mI pb,t;r Sb;=r bhn  ker. a;emirk; bOe$n j;mR;n f;Nssh s;r; ibXbb*;pI dӳt Sh;n ker ineCz &;rtIY jnxi Ab' s'SkOit Et*;id. s;/;r, p;#k yid gNh%;in p;# kern AE ibSY tq*el; sMpekR ntun ker abiht hebn.
   tOtIY pirCzed el%k at*Nt SpxRk;tr  ibWY iney  a;el;cn; kerezn. y; Sb;&;ibk k;re,E s;/;r, p;#k Ab' icNt;xIl ex,Ir me/* tkRibtekRr sOi kreb. j;p;enr a;/uink Eith;s smk;lIn s;m;ijk abSh; ineY y;r; gebW,; krezn t;edr me/* reYez n;n; ib&i. el%k eymn men kern emEij eqek btRm;n pyRNt gt xt;i/k bzerr j;p;enr Ak;i/k ;nptenr k;r, aitir a;tibXb;s etmin gebWk et;ixa;ik \\_suk; men kern emEij s'Sk;r pyRNt j;p;enr r, yuegr peY;jenE heYez  ikN Aktrf;&;eb eY;er;pIY p&;b gh, ker s;m;j*b;dI h\Y;r anukr, izl m;r;tk &ul. idBtIY ibXbyue pr;jY es &uelrE m;sul a;r ikzu nY. b;bl aqRnIit /Besr e=e]\ aitir a;tibXb;s bl el%k ibXb;s kern A ineY gebWk pyReb=kmhl z;;\  s;/;r, m;nuWek blet enizmUlt" esE m;ikRnIeY;er;pmu%I anukre,r /;r; Ab' aitdӳt aqRwnitk YnE b;bl aqRnIitr /B'esr k;r,. /u ey aqRnIitb*bs;b;i,ej*r =it heYez t;E nYwdniNdn jIbenr itb;hI /;r;ekE bdel ideYez Amn&;eb y; eqek sOi heYez Ak;i/k  j;tIY s'k$. ibexW ker ixnijnE b; ntun Ak pjenr a;tpk;x `e$ez y;edr me/* j;p;intB blet a;r ikzu enE. y;r; als kmRibmu% l=*hIn d;iYtBhIn. a&*St heY peez crm ibl;sI jIbny;pen. t;edrek itgt peq ifireY a;netE Akdl pit y;r; icNt;xIl j;tIYt;b;dI  ineh;nijner;n b; j;p;nItBb;edr sUcn; kerezn mUlt" el%nIr m;/*em. ikN ek ex;en k;r kq; b;blprbtIR j;p;nI klk;r%;n;el; dird edex Sh;n;Nterr  k;r, iheseb kmR=m t, ximekr s'k$\ Aki$. suib%*;t b;i,ij*k pit;n Eet;cu\Ar is\ ibexW b*itB Eicer; in\Y; et; a;s;ih i$i&r s;eq Ak s;=;_k;er SpE bel efelezn t, pjenr k;j kr;r a;gh enE eymni$  a;ez cIn;edr k;ejE b;/* heY a;m;edrek sb edex lgI kret heCz klk;r%;n; ineY eyet heCz k;r, ek;Mp;nIek et; b-;c;et heb. fel edilY; heCz eymn pit;n etmin sOi heCz ebk;rtB kem y;eCz el;k s'%*; ibStOt heY celez klk;r%;n;r ae$;emxn er;eb;i$kr, bOi p;eCz bYSk n;girkdӳt j;p;n /;ibt heCz isl&;r es;s;Ei$r idek aqRwnitk ainXcYt; \ inr;p;hInt;r k;re, t, pjenr me/* sOi kerez ibb;ehr an;gh. Ak srk;rI iheseb ed%; y;eCz 2000 s;el p;Pt bYSk heYez aqR;-_ 20 bzer peez Amn pjener s'%*; izl 1520000 jn. 2015 s;el kem igeY d-;;eb 1240000 jen. bl; y;Y &ibW*t j;p;enr d;iYtBxIl n;girk g#en yue;r pitit Cc;ibl;sI r;jwnitk ent;r; &;el; Ab' mNd due$;E j;p;nek ideYezn. gebW,; krel  men hY meNdr p;;$;E &;ir heb. im
. ex# cm_k;r Aki$ mNtb* kerezn j;p;n Ab' anup /nI edxel;r aqRs;h;y* nIit b;  m;niskt; sMpekR ey aqRs;h;y* ideY a;NtjR;itkabd;n r;%; b; sm;n ajRenr idn exW. eymn a;rb ps;grIY yue j;p;enr ibx;l a'ekr EeYn pd;n ker m;ikRnI yunIitek  sr;sir smqRn. aqb; a;emirk;Y s'`i$t 11 eseP$err sN];sI apk;er sU] /er ibXbb*;pI sN];s dUrIkre, ibi& dird edex m;ikRnI px;senr aqRs;h;y* pq; pbtRn. AE&;eb  en;'r; r;jwnitk ex* s;/enr le= aqRs;h;y* ideY ek;n  j;itr k;ez pkOt sm;n a;d;Y kr; y;Yn;. peY;jn p;rSpirk x;eb;/ SbOkOit Ab' /mIRYs;'SkOitk smeZ;t;. A$; h;ireY egez belE tq;kiqt s&*t;r s'`WR ed%; ideYez bel aenekr /;r,;.
   ctuqR pirCzed el%k j;p;n \ &;retr p;rSpirk ix=;l ibWY ineY ebx ikzu Bl tq* a;m;edr ideYezn. A%;en itin pqemE belezn bihRibeXb Aki$ edexr r;dUetr &uimk; heCz" itin r;jwnitk \ s;'SkOitk pitbnkt;r e/BR bnutB Sh;pnk;rI. b;Stbkq; ikN at*Nt pirt;epr ibWY ey ai/k;'x e=e]E di=, AxIY edxel;r r;dUtr; bihRibexb abSh;nk;el t; p;ln kern n;. a;r\ Aki$ mUl*b;n kq; belezn Sbedx Ab' pitp= edx &eYr Eith;s Ab' s'SkOit p;# jrI. /u kU$wnitk sMpekRr e=e]E nY b;i,ij*k sflt;r e=e]\ AE pec;r ibkLp enE.

   j;p;n ey s;m;j*b;dI Aki$ r; b; xi izl t; Eith;ssmt. yid\ ek;irY; EeNd;enixY; t;E\Y;n m;uirY; s;Ep;n p;l;\ p&Oit al pyRNt j;p;enr s;mirk sMps;r,b;dI nIit ineY reYez n;n; ibtkR. j;p;nipY rbINdn;q SbY' cIenr pit j;p;nI s;m;j(*b;dI ai&y;enr k; sm;el;cn; kerizeln. itIY ibXbyupUbR pyRNt j;p;n k%en; bihRxi ;r; a;;Nt hYin. teb el%k men kern p;cIn k;el mh;s;grIY al eqek k;imk;ej Et*;id ZZZ;r pUn"pUn" a;gmn ehtu p;kOitk xir pit j;p;nIedr men &Yimixt x;r jNm. em t;r; p;kOitk xi jlb;Yuaigm;i$p;h;p;qr p&Oitet Xberr xi k;j ker bel ibXb;es p,t hY. AE ibXb;s eqekE sO ixneq; /mR Ab' ixnek;ku inn b; Xbrr; j;p;enr. mh;s;grIY ZZZ; /u nY j;p;n p&;ibt heYez g&Ir&;eb ibedxI s'SkOitr a;md;nIr ;r;. ek;irY; cIn &;rt Ab' eY;er;pIY s'SkOit /mR icNt; Ab' pyuir pb;h j;p;nI &Uimek j;p;nIedr m;nsek A%en; tIb&;eb a;eNd;ilt ker celez. ek;irYIr; tq; EY;eY;Er; ineY Aesez &;W; /;tur b*bh;rpyuipit mOt m;nueWr s_k;riY; Et*;id cIn eqek Aesez k;nij a=r Eekb;n;r /;r,; c; ed; i$ isermin kunfuiseY; mtb;d Et*;id &;rt eqek Aesez ebo/mR ebo dxRn /*;n ejn ebo /mR is;mp;ils'SkOt%er;i ilip A%en; iY;xIl j;p;nI &;W;r a;t;Y Az;; j;p;en c;eYr c;eWr pit\ Aesez &;rt eqek. eY;er;p eqek Aesez r;jwnitk g,t;iN]k a;/uink x;snt;iN]k /;r,;. ikNtu j;p;nIedr duec;% ibSeY ibSf;irt heYizl Aed; yueg bihr;edx eqek a;gt el;h;r j;h;ejr smued e&es cl; esE pqm y;iN]k s&*t;r idek j;p;nIedr dOi a;kO hY. emEij eqek ex;\Y; yuegr ibXbyu pyRNt m;ikRnI \ eY;er;pIY s&*t;s'SkOit ;r; j;p;nI ngrjIbn kI a&Ut&;eb p&;ibt Ab' anukr,ipY e#izl t; ibSeYr edgE ker y;r /;r; A%n cU;Nt p /;r, kerez. AixY;r kOiWs&*t;r edx j;p;nek a;j eY;er;pIY r; blel atu*i kr; heb ik ? pkOtpe= j;p;n bihRibeXbr s;mirk ai&y;n eqek r=; epel\ bihRs'SkOitr ai&y;n aqb; a;md;nI pb,t; eqek a;tr=; kret p;erin. t;E bel j;p;nI injSb s'SkOit it rIitnIit h;ireY egez t; nY br' ibi& edxIY s'SkOit j;p;nI s'SkOitr s;eq Ak;t heY ai&nb ibic] s'SkOitr a&u*dY `i$eYez. s;Mpitkk;el j;p;nI m;ng; kimkss'SkOit AixY; eqek a;emirk; pyRNt bum heY ed%; ideYez. j;p;nI j;tIY %;b;r suix ibXbb;sIr mn jY ker ineY a;erk s;m;j* ibSt;r ker celez.
an*idek b;i,j*ek\ yid a;m;r m;nb s'SkOit an* Aki$ p /er inE. t;hel\ j;p;nI &;rI pyui wbdu*itk s;jsr;m imi@Y;s'SkOitr p&;b s;r; ibXbE gh, krez. a;b;r &;rtIY iben;dn/mIR cliCce]\ A%n j;p;en jnipYt; l;& krez. el%ekr /;r,; j;p;enr aqRwnitk inMngit AE buemr k;r, Ab' &ibW*et t; a;r\ ej;r;el; het p;er.

    pm pirCzed el%k ikzu aj;n; ith;isk tq* siebixt kerezn y; a;jekr pjeNmr ejen r;%; peY;jn. a;mr; kjnEb; j;in ey p;kOitk _shIn Ab' cIn \ r;ixY;r s;eq s;eq yue ibjYI edx j;p;enr ib+;n \ pyuigt YnE a;jekr &;retr Akidn izl a;dxR. itIY ibXbyupUbR pyRNt j;p;nI k*;e@$ kelej &;rtIY z;]r; k;irgir ix=; l;& kerezn. A%n\ aenk z;] pet a;sezn. ek j;net; j;p;n&;rt ibinmY sMpkRek pOep;Wkt; kerizeln Akd; j;p;nI p/;n mN]I ib%*;t \Y;esd; ibXbibd*;leYr pit;t; ixegen;bu \\kum;. j;p;n&;rt wm]I simitr pqm s&;pit izeln j;p;enr ag,I ixLppit pqm b*;'k pit;t; AEEic ixbus;\Y;. &;retr pqm s;irr &;rIixLp pit;n $;$;r j;mexdjI rtn $;$;\ j;p;en p; ere%izeln anusr, kerezn A edexr pyuiibd*;ek.
 AE pirCzed el%k j;p;nI sm;ejr gitxIlt; @;En*;imjm ek;q;Y t;r mUl anusN/;n kerezn. t;r &;W* eqek j;n; y;YSb;/In Ab' g,t;iN]k r;teN]r me/* iniht reYez j;itr s;men AigeY cl;r anuepr,;. eymn a;emirk;
f{;Ns. j;p;enr e=e] 200 bzerr ibiCzt; eqek wmEij s'Sk;err me/* ideY a;/uink sm;ej r,. ikNtu sbRe=e] AE abSh;Y r;IY Yn git p;Yn;. j;p;enr e=e] r;IY Ab' s;m;ijk e=e] pc gitxIlt; a;net eperizeln t%nk;r ibc=, entOtB y; Sb;/Int;p;Pt &;rtsh AE aelr edxel;r e=e] sb hYin. j;itgt Yen em/;sMp Ccibl;sI entOtB ey apirh;yR es$; itin Sr, kireY ideln.

   A%;en s;Mpitk;elr j;p;nI ibd*;leYr Eith;s ibWYk p;#bEsms*; ineY\ injSb mt b* kerezn. t-;r met /u atIt `$n;r punr;bOi b; &;el;mNd eyoikt;r ibc;r n; ker pkOt st*ek SbIk;r kr;$;E Eith;s+;enr pirc;Yk. j;p;n es$; krel a;r Z;eml; q;ek n;. 

   W Ab' exW pirCzed el%k j;p;nek At%;in &;el;b;esn ey Aedxi$ itIY jNm&Uim blet i/; kern in. a;r AE men;&;b;p het anup;i,t kerez Sbn;m/n* kib s;kut;er; h;ig\Y;r;rr kibt;.

   AE pirCzed j;p;enr j;tIY sms*;r keYki$ tuel /erezn. Arme/* &ibW*_xi t, sm;ejr btRm;n ht;x;b*k abSh;n t-;ek g&Ir&;eb a;el;it kerez. 1998 s;elr Ak jrIp tuel /er belezn AE bzr a;tht*;k;rIedr s'%*; 31 h;j;r z;ieY egez. y;edr ai/k;'xE heCzn anu/R cix. p;x;p;ix anu/R ibx bzerr t,edr me/*\ a;thnenr pb,t; mx" bOi epeY celez. Ar mUl k;r, ai&ept kemRr a&;b ebk;rtB z;$;E inMntr p;irximk Et*;id. aqR;_ t, pjeNmr s;men SbCz &ibW*etr ek;n Ex;r; enE. AE ep=;pe$ a;g;mI dx bzr j;p;enr abSh; ek;q;Y igeY d-;;eb t;r Aki$ tuln;mUlk t;r eceY bl; &;el; ekotuhlkr ic] pSh;pn kerezn. 2001 s;elr m;cR m;es ib%*;t edn_su es; ekn pit;n cIn di=, ek;irY; q;El*; is^;pur Ab' &;retr 18 eqek 69 bzr bYesr n;girkedr icNt;&;bn;r s;eq j;p;nIedr Aki$ tuln;mUlk jrIp pk;x kerez. AE jrIp eqek &;rtIY Ab' j;p;nIedr icNt;r t;rtm* heCz A rkm "
pqm px " a;g;mI dx bzr per inj edexr abSh; &;el; heb ik ?
&;el; heb rd;t; heeCzn 31 xt;'x j;p;nI " 68 xt;'x &;rtIY.
itIY px " a;g;mI dx bzr per ibeXbr abSh; &;el; heb ik ?
&;el; heb rd;t; heCzn 33 xt;'x j;p;nI " 57 xt;'x &;rtIY.
tOtIY px " a;g;mI dx bzr per pOiqbIr pirebx btRm;n abSh; eqek a;r\ &;el; heb ik ?
&;el; heb rd;t; heCzn 19 xt;'x j;p;nI " 53 xt;'x &;rtIY.
&ibW*t sMpekR j;p;nIedr AE ht;x; el%kek\ ht;x kerez. AE piriShitr el%k a;erki$ tBpU,R sms*;\ e% kerezn y; t;r ibc=, dOiet /r; peez. es$; j;p;nI ix=; b*bSh;. en;ebl ibjYI j;p;nI ib+;nI ihedik ixr;k;\Y;r bb*ek smqRn ker itin\ belezn j;p;en ibexW pit&;sMp ixedr pit&; ibk;exr le= ek;n nIit b; pit enE. y; reYez a;emirk;Y. ey k;re, pit&;el; b;Eer cel eyet b;/* hY.
   sbRexW el%k j;p;nek t;r ht a;tibXb;sek ifireY a;n;r jn* a;ebdn j;ineYezn. j;p;n t;r inejr pr a;r\ ibXb;s Sh;pn kr; peY;jn. atIet\ j;p;n dub;r AE j;tIY ibpyRStt; k;i$eY #et pungR#n pirkLpn; gh, ker s;fl* l;& kerez. Aki$ 1923 s;el k;net; &UimkeMpr pr itIYb;r itIY mh;yue pr;jeYr pr. k;ejE atIetr pq anusr, ker j;p;nek a;b;r e# d-;;et heb Ab' es$; sb. ikNtu yug p;eL$ez smY a;mUl bdel egez. b;Stbt; an* Ei^t ideCz. j;p;enr c;ridekr edxel; A%n W;$sr dxekr dird ipizeY p; edx enE. a;ib:k;r ;bn; icNt;r ibk;x Ab' m;ikRnIj;p;nI pyuir smk= pyui A%n t;edr h;et. a;E i$r idk ideY z;ieY egez j;p;nek bdUr. ikesr pr in&Rr ker e# d-;;eb j;p;n. i$i& eri@\ \Y;km*;n i&i@\ isi@ k*;es$erk@R;r kiMp$;r cIps em;b;El ef;n kimks iki$ ep;ekmn em;$r g;i kn$;kxn ek;Mp;nI ipis egEm n;ik b;eY;e$ken;lij ? A%n a;r eb-ec enE ibXbek t;k l;igeY edY; yue;r ibeXbr an*tm ex eslsm*;n es;in pit;t; a;ikeY; em;irt; n*;xn;l p*;n;es;ink m;_suixt; pit;t; ekoen;suek m;_suixt; eh;L@; pit;t; ex;Eicer; eh;nd; pmu%. ibexBr ex i@j;En;r h;n;eY em;irr b; mu% qube peez eh;; em;$r ek;Mp;nI kmRc;rIedr ebtenr Ak &;g h;s kr;r kq; e`;W,; kerez kink; kepR;erxn Ab' imen;L$; a^I&UUt heCz 40 bzerr\ ebix puren; mihl; pk;xn; s'Sh; fuijn esEk;_su su;n ek;Mp;nI heY egez edilY;. b b ek;Mp;nIel; m;gt Sh;n;Ntirt heCz sSt; p;irximekr edx cIen. r;jnIitkr; b*St a;emirk;ek tu kretE. p*;i$\i$k n*;xn;il$edr pek$ hey peez xUn*. ibd*;leYr z;]z;]Iedr em/;r m;n inMng;mI heCz mx". em em bOi p;eCz eh;melesr s'%*;. k;ejr edex a;j k;j enE a&;bnIY be$
   AE muhUetR yid j;p;en ek &;el; eqek q;ek es Akm;] 8
/9 i$ i$i& c*;enl. ;mt; a;ez es%;enEa;r ek;q;\ t; ed%; y;eb n;. kOxk;Y heCz j;p;n. a;r\ Ak /;p b;ieY blel blet hY " kOxk;Y h\Y;$;E hyt t;r jn* &;el; heb. emdb;l* =itr k;r,\ be$. j;p;enr m*;r;qn edo mx" xq heY a;sez t;rpr ik Ak smY eqem eyet heb ? ikNtu ek;n gNteb* t;r Sp idkinedRxn; jn;b exe#r geNh anupiSht. 



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